Battery Match Battery Match

Improving Performance in Electric Vehicle Batteries  

CBI spoke to Marcus Young, an Associate Professor and Associate Department Chair for the Undergraduate Program at the University of North Texas (UNT) about a two-year project that kicked off in February 2023 to look at materials in low voltage (12V) batteries for electric vehicles in an effort to further improve performance of lead batteries.  

Lead batteries are still used in virtually every car on the road-from combustion engine vehicles through to Electric vehicles. Working alongside UNT, East Penn Manufacturing Company, and ECOBAT, CBI will further study the 12V battery electrochemical processes for materials and duty cycles common for lead batteries used in electric vehicles. By understanding more of how these batteries function in different charge conditions, temperature, and climate, we can determine what changes will attain a longer life span and better performance. 

Electric vehicles rely on lead batteries to provide safety functionality in the case of failure of the main propulsion battery.  This application is referred to as low voltage or auxiliary battery functionality. The lead batteries used in low-voltage EV applications use advanced alloys with different metallic additives to achieve current levels of performance. The study will focus on two specific additives, Ba (barium) and Bi (bismuth), and how their grain structure and influences on corrosion rates and crystallization would affect grid performance in the conditions found in EVs Previous research has shown that grids with Ba additives have reduced oxide formation, while Bi facilitates faster recrystallization. 

Using XRM – or X-ray microscopy, this project will investigate corrosion in batteries and look at the impact of Ba or Bi additives on battery life. The technique requires relatively thin samples to be used.  Extremely thin pieces have been created and used on the nano scale, so that they can be x-rayed. As the x-ray penetrates through these panels, researchers will isolate areas of interest and study the impact of aging time to see a source(s) of potential problems. 

Beyond lab-scale techniques, synchrotron experiments at the APS at Argonne National Laboratory will be used on large samples linking lab findings to real world lead battery products used in auxiliary applications.   

“We’re making battery life better for everyone,” said Young. He explained that ultimately this research will impact daily users as the battery storage community creates faster, better, and more efficient sources.    

New Solar And Battery Powered Tractor A Farming Solution For Africa 

Innovate UK Funding Malawi Trial of Low-Cost Tractor Featuring Lead Batteries and Solar Power for Deep Bed Farming 


[LONDON, 20 April, 2023]  AfTrak or Africa Tractor that will use solar and lead batteries, is both a prototype program and £270k project funded by Innovate UK as part of its Energy Catalyst Round 9 program, which officially kicked off in London today. 

Innovate UK will fund a prototype and a sustainable business plan for a potentially revolutionary tractor design, featuring lead batteries. The UK program, which invests in innovative business ideas across all sectors, will support an African farming project created in collaboration between the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI), UK- & Malawi-based charity Tiyeni, and Loughborough University.  

“The kick-off event exceeded expectations. We found it extremely valuable to network, not only with the Energy Catalyst team, but also with other innovators and stakeholders,” said AfTrak’s Project Manager, Dr. Carl Telford, a CBI’s senior research and innovation manager. 

Across large areas of Malawi, under the few inches of topsoil, there is a heavily compacted layer of rock-hard earth through which plants cannot penetrate.​ Tiyeni has created an innovative agricultural method called Deep Bed Farming (DBF) through their extensive business experience and a network of agricultural advisers. The tractor, being developed at Loughborough University, will be a low-cost, hand-operated, solution for farming in this difficult soil.  

Dr. Jonathan Wilson, a specialist in systems and mechanical engineering and leader of the Loughborough team notes, “We have a unique opportunity to take Tiyeni’s unique Deep Bed Farming technique and add Loughborough’s engineering & mechanization know-how to dramatically decrease upfront labor requirements.” 

The proposed AfTrak system is a micro electric tractor capable of mechanising land preparation in line with Tyeni’s Deep Bed Farming to prepare soil to a depth of 400mm. 

Over 800 million people have no reliable access to electricity, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, rural regions of Asia. ​ AfTrak also provides power for agricultural applications such as water irrigation and domestic applications such as phone charging, electric cooking and lighting.​ 


The AfTrak tractor will be trialed in Malawi by the Tiyeni team, with a focus on enabling an important agricultural technique, Deep Bed Farming.  

Tiyeni’s Country Director, Isaac Chavula comments, “This is a breakthrough. Finally, I can see a solution through the AfTrak tractors to break the hard pan soil that has long challenged farmers. By adopting the Deep Bed Farming technique, farmers can now envision relief with the AfTrak tractors.”  

In this initiative, AfTrak aims to: 

Tiyeni Executive Director Alex Gerard added, “I am so excited that Innovate UK has funded our project to accelerate the end of food insecurity in Malawi. Combining our innovative Deep Bed Farming method with a sustainable solar tractor, we could speed up the support for millions of small-holder farmers.” 

Telford added, “This is a perfect application and new opportunity area for utilizing lead batteries. Moreover, the anticipated outcomes are valuable. It’s an exciting time for renewable energy and lead battery storage, as this mechanisation of the Deep Bed Farming technique could be a game changer.” 

About Consortium for Battery Innovation 

The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:    

AfTrak is the second bid application to be awarded to CBI in the past year after LoCEL-H2, a sustainable microgrid project using lead batteries and a novel, lead-battery-enabled funded by the European Commission under the Horizon Europe program. 

About Loughborough University (LU) 

The Wolfson School of Mechanical Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering is one of the biggest engineering schools of their kind in the UK with a research portfolio of around £52m. CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology) has a cohort of around 60 academics, researchers and PhD students and a good range of laboratory facilities for prototype manufacture and testing. 

About Tiyeni UK (TU)  

A UK based NGO who have funded the development of Deep Bed Farming (DBF) as a response to extreme food poverty within Malawi. The organization has grown year on year as support and demand for DBF has increased. Alex Gerard was appointed as a full-time Executive Director in 2021. Tiyeni’s board has extensive business experience and a network of agricultural advisers who have contributed to the development of DBF. Farmers adopting DBF can double their agricultural yields and all but eliminate requirements for expensive and environmentally damaging imported fertilizers.​ 

Tiyeni Malawi (TM) is a Malawian company, funded by Tiyeni UK and operated at arm's length by a Malawian team, and led by an experienced Country Director, Isaac Monjo Chavula. Tiyeni continues to grow in size as DBF spreads across the country – especially since Malawi government approval. Historically the organization has focused on agriculture but is now diversifying into water management and carbon credits. Tiyeni is focused on ensuring all farmers in Malawi have access to training in DBF either through government extension workers, other NGOs, or through direct training for Tiyeni. The team are also developing the business model for smallholder deep bed farmers so they can leverage the other DBF benefits of carbon sequestration and water management. 

Energy Boost: CBI and ILA Open New Office in Brussels

The International Lead Association and Consortium for Battery Innovation have opened an office in Brussels to support the lead and lead battery value chains, and planned energy storage projects, as the EU strengthens its commitment to delivering net zero ambitions.

The decision to establish an EU base reinforces ILA’s long-term commitment to developing a sustainable lead value chain in Europe, as decision-makers focus on strengthening the EU’s strategic autonomy and embedding circular economy principles.

Dr Andy Bush, ILA’s Managing Director said: “The EU benefits from well-established lead and lead battery value chains and there is a need to nurture and develop the industry and the technologies we support on a much bigger scale to meet ambitious climate targets. While we have been working in Brussels for many years, our new office will act as a base for continued efforts to maximise support for the lead industry as well as continuing to engage in important regulatory discussions on a range of files.”

The move comes as the EU introduces new proposals designed to shore-up the supply of critical raw materials and boost low carbon industries in the shape of the Net-Zero Industry Act. Meanwhile, a proposal to include lead on the REACH authorisation list is being fiercely opposed by ILA, representing lead producers and downstream users who rely on lead to produce a wide range of economically and socially important products and applications.

The joint office will also act as a base for the Consortium for Battery Innovation’s energy storage work, with a focus on new projects working in collaboration with EU institutions, member companies and other partners. As lead batteries can be infinitely recycled, and are considered to be one of the top five most sustainable consumer products, CBI aims to support the work of the European Commission in strategically significant areas, such as the EU Industrial Strategy on energy autonomy and electric vehicles, and to play a pivotal role in the achievement of EU’s climate neutrality goals by 2050.

Dr Alistair Davidson, CBI Director, said the decision to open a Brussels office builds on the research group’s recent success winning a Horizon 2020 project to develop innovative microgrid technology for off-grid communities.

He said: “We are working with a wide range of partners in Europe to develop more energy storage projects which will help the EU meet net zero targets through innovative battery-based solutions. These include developing pre-competitive technical blueprints for applications such as EV charging stations and renewable energy storage facilities.”

Initially two CBI employees will be based in the Brussels office, on Avenue de Tervueren. Nicola Filizola joins as CBI Senior External Affairs Manager, and Dr. Athanasia-Maria Tompolidi as CBI Research and Innovation Manager.

Innovation of Lead Batteries at East Penn Manufacturing

In January, a few members of CBI’s team visited eastern Pennsylvania to tour part of East Penn Manufacturing’s facility which produces over 500 types of batteries, including a large number of lead battery designs. Indeed, East Penn produces gigawatt hours of batteries every year – and is a real-world, established gigafactory.

Norbert Maleschitz, East Penn’s Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer, shared his excitement about the future of lead batteries. With innovation as part of their DNA, he explained that East Penn is pushing its technology further through an ongoing investment into R&D and Engineering. As lead batteries’ role in meeting future energy demands grows, Maleschitz and East Penn support improvements in manufacturing because they are key for enhancing technical solutions to both customers and the industry.

Dr. Matt Raiford, CBI’s Senior Technical Manager, inquired about the projects and enhancements underway at East Penn. There are several activities focused on improving electrode design, material innovations, and overall battery designs. The results will be a key part in continued performance improvements for lead battery technology and vital for ensuring that these batteries can meet future energy storage requirements.

CBI also had the chance to discuss and view some ongoing project work at the Briedegam-Miksiewicz Innovation Center R & D Department. Dr. Carl Telford, CBI’s Senior Research and Innovation Manager, met with Perry Kramer, Director of Technology, Research and Development at the Center and was able to look at how they are working with New Zealand-based development partner, ArcActive, to fully take advantage of the development of this novel technology.

Perry explained how ArcActive Technology features a carbon felt that replaces the standard lead grid structure of the negative current collector, enabling significant increases in charge acceptance. A battery featuring this technology helps to lower emissions in micro hybrid vehicle applications, and also improves the charging characteristics of the traditional 12 V lead batteries used in electric vehicles (these ‘auxiliary’ batteries power a vehicle’s accessories and critical safety functions).

Perry shared an overview of another large project that is focused on increasing cycle life. Bi-polar battery technology offers the potential to increase cycle life by three times over standard Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) products while also reducing weight. The applications of this technology could range from use in automotive to reserve power and motive power, as well as other energy storage applications.

Telford and the rest of the team were particularly interested in East Penn’s work related to future manufacturing processes for lead batteries. Manufacturing needs to be very precise and predictable to enable the construction of a commercially successful, reliable, and dependable lead-battery product. East Penn has a large capability in manufacturing engineering and automation. Further innovations in manufacturing will provide the right mechanisms for extending battery longevity in future applications.

Finally, the team toured East Penn’s smelter and recycling facility. Lead batteries are a fantastic example of a product designed for complete end of life recycling, and currently over 99% of lead batteries are collected and recycled in North America. Their facility recycles everything including the acid. The facility recycles 182 million pounds of lead on an annual basis. In addition, they have a process in place to remove nitrogen oxide exhaust or off-gases and use them to create other products that benefit an adjacent industry.

Overall, CBI greatly appreciated the tour of East Penn to learn how their facilities’ efforts and leadership truly make the lead battery such an important contributor to global energy storage and a model for a more circular economy.

ALBA 2023

Wolfsburg, Germany will be the host city for our next iteration of our successful, annual workshops focused on Advanced Lead Batteries. The Automotive Lead Battery Advancements (ALBA) 2023 Workshop, will be held on 14 June, from 11am-5.30pm and 15 June from 8.30am-3pm, and will include a networking dinner in the evening of the 14June.

This year’s ALBA will have plenary talks concentrating on auxiliary applications and on power-supply requirements in support of Functional Safety.

During parallel break-out sessions, the following topics will be addressed:

Download the draft ALBA workshop schedule.

CBI will also hold its European Technical Workshop on 13-14 June and Safety-relevant State of Function (SSOF) Workshop on 15-16 June. All events will take place at the Leonardo Hotel and CongressPark in Wolfsburg.

Click here to register.

We are looking forward to meeting you in person this summer in Germany!

CBI visit to Clarios HQ in Hanover, Germany

Our members are vital for CBI’s ecosystem as they help us develop messages, interventions, roadmap, and our own call for projects. This helps CBI conduct pre-competitive research that benefits all CBI members, the battery industry in general and the wider research community.

As a large battery maker, Clarios are an invaluable member. Additionally, Clarios were instrumental in setting up and supporting the work of CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, Dr Carl Telford, in developing public funding opportunities in Europe and deliver exciting, game-changing projects.

CBI team visited Clarios HQ in Hanover, Germany, to strengthen this collaboration and to learn more about their current R&D work.

« We have developed the Start-Stop technology in AGM to become the benchmark technology for premium cars with micro-hybrid functionalit. Innovation in process technology like the Clarios Power frame technology has been leading the way and is presently the standard in the industry. For the future, we see a lot of life left in Lead technology. We see further innovation potential in charge acceptance and cycle life to further improve the technology » (Dr Christian Rosenkranz - Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios & Chairman at CBI)

Watch the first video from CBI's visit to Clarios:

Exide’s Portuguese sites are reducing carbon emissions with PV and a BESS using lead batteries

The CBI team visited Castanheira do Ribatejo, in Portugal, to meet with Exide Technologies and to find out more about its facilities.

Exide operates two state-of-the-art solar installations at its battery production (in Castanheira do Ribatejo) and battery recycling facilities (in Azambuja), using lead batteries (see our case study here).

José Barreiros (Director Product Development Industrial EMEA at Exide) explained how it works in detail:

« We have a combined capacity of 4.5 MWp, with overall 11.250 solar panels installed. This is enough energy to supply more than 1.500 households. With these solar parks, we have reduced the carbon emission by more than 20% across both sites.

In our production plant, the PV installation is combined with our own battery energy storage system (BESS). It contains 70 inverters and 290 Sonnenschein Solar battery cells, with an available stored energy of around 500kWh.  The battery storage system is part of a ‘Green Social Building’. It operates as an island for the factory workers, where the solar panels provide energy during the day and the batteries provide power at night ».

BESS using lead batteries at Exide in Castanheira do Ribatejo, Portugal.

The type of lead batteries used in this Battey Energy Storage System (BESS) are Exide’s very own Sonnenschein Solar gel batteries. This battery range « has been used in complex, large-scale network power applications across the world for many decades », José continued:

« With their proven reliability, maintenance-free and first-class safety features, gel batteries offer a long service life and protection against deep discharge. Also, since lead batteries are fully recyclable at the end-of-life, our Sonnenschein Solar range provides added sustainability for renewable energy storage applications ».

For CBI, energy storage applications utilising battery technology is an increasingly important market-key to help governments around the world meet future electrification and decarbonisation targets and Exide’s Product Development Director agrees:

« As a global player of battery and energy systems, Exide Technologies is in prime position to inspire today’s and tomorrow’s generations with smart energy storage solutions, as we recognize the need to both preserve and energize the world. Exide Technologies offers smart energy storage solutions to support the transition from fossil energy to renewable energy sources. We focus on storage systems and solutions for greenhouse gas reduction and the optimization of TCO in energy-intensive industries.

Our energy storage solutions will enable businesses to become ‘greener’, more productive and in control of their energy usage and costs ».

Another benefit of this project is its unique and innovative Battery Management System (BMS) for lead batteries:

«Our installation is utilizing the battery management system to control the voltage of each cell and the temperature on each string, via four probes, assuring a tight control of the depth of discharge and charge on each string.

Taking into consideration that the battery operates on one cycle per day, this will allow deeper control of the state of health of the cells and act as soon as needed. It also predicts the available energy of the system depending on the power», concluded José.

This installation is one of many worldwide energy storage systems using lead batteries. If you’re interested in more projects like this one, please explore our Interactive Map.

New generation of talented scientists join our industry

They are the future of the lead battery industry: highly-educated, motivated and brimming with new ideas and ambition. CBI spoke to three talented scientists, new to the lead battery industry, to find out more about their perceptions of the workplace and to hear their suggestions about how the industry can continue to attract the brightest and the best.

Max Parker, a PhD Student at Warwick University (United Kingdom); Miguel Rodríguez Gómez, PhD Student at INMA (Spain) and Grace Rocha, a Scientist at ITEMM (Brazil). From industry’s first impressions, learning new areas for innovation and crucial for our future, to the industry’s urgent effort to attract more young talents, they are the voices of a new generation inside the lead battery industry and here’s how they feel about it.

CBI : Tell us a bit about when you first joined this industry. What were your expectations ?

Max : « Batteries are an exciting area with a lot of areas to look at and lots of different things to analyse. Before joining the industry I didn’t really know what made one battery better than the next, why this one can charge faster than the other or why this one lasts longer than the other. Lead batteries are interesting because they have been around for such a long time, but there is still so much more to look at, and still so much more to learn. »

Grace : « To be really honest I didn’t think very much about the whole Lead Battery industry. I just wanted to be part of a great industry with a great social impact, which everybody near around knows Moura does to the city and to the state. Now, I am truly surprised with how much I enjoy working on the field. I see that there is a excitingopportunity for progress learning and development in every area of lead battery technology. »

Miguel : « I had just finished my masters degree and I was looking for research into something related to the energy or climate crisis. Energy storage is essential to be able to cover the off-peak hours of renewable production, and to move away from fossil fuels (which also have rapidly diminishing reserves). So, I started to look for research lines related to batteries. The truth is that I knew almost nothing about lead batteries, I thought there were only in cars and little else, but when I learned a little more and discovered that they can be used for many things and above all that recycling is very high, I decided to go for it.”

CBI : And now that you’ve been working for the industry, what’s your current perception ?

Max : « I think that there are lots of challenges ahead for the world of lead batteries. I would like to see more innovation to meeting these challenges, especially in the energy storage sector, which will be a big part of the future of lead batteries. Innovation is constant, and constantly necessary, because the use cases of lead batteries are changing. We need to be providing the new and innovative batteries of not just today but also the future. »

Miguel : « There is still much to discover and improve, and I think that since the materials of the batteries are cheap and abundant (but also safe and resistant), it will be very important in the years to come. On the other hand I think that production is too focused on the automotive industry. There is less and less demand for cars worldwide and energy is becoming more and more expensive, so I am convinced that the future is energy storage and back up systems. »

CBI : What can you learn from working with professionals who have been in the industry for a long time? What do you learn from each other in your projects ?

Max : « Professionals with a lot of experience have a wealth of knowledge and, but it is up to them to pass that on. I started from zero knowledge and having an experienced professional to provide guidance would have been of great help to ensure that I wasn’t misunderstanding things. Since being involved with the CBI, it has enabled contact with battery experts within companies and other universities. Some of them can share knowledge that is not as well known or written about in technical literature. And this leads to better experiments, better understanding and better development. »

Grace : « One of my favorite things about my job is the opportunity to network with everybody in the global lead battery chain. I’ve noticed that there is so much contribution on the field. For example, every time I have a call with a supplier, a partner, a specialist, I learn something new. And I feel they are always willing to help, they are so welcoming to answer my questions (and I do have lots of questions !). The Lead battery is not a technology that you learn through on college here in Brazil. So everything I know so far, I’ve learned from their experience. I’m  really glad to see how some of the ideas I’ve given actually worked and contributed with the development of the projects. »

CBI : What things would you like to happen in the industry to attract more talent ?

Miguel : « There are two main things to attract younger professionals. The first is to raise awareness of the lead battery industry, communicating its importance globally and showing that it is possible to have a fruitful career in it. The second is to communicate that it is a technology that can help with very important problems that especially (but not only) the younger generations are going to suffer, such as the climate crisis, the energy crisis and the resource crisis. For me personally, it is essential that 99% of the lead in batteries is recycled. I would not like to work with a polluting technology that ends up accumulating in landfills. I also believe that research lines focused on renewable energy storage and batteries for trains (which is the most efficient and less polluting transport, both for people and goods), should be encouraged. »

Max : « From my perspective in the world of academia, I would like to see more PhD funding, more internships, sponsorships and more university partnerships. Early career development and career paths can encourage people to join. Another option would be a summer job/internship/work experience in a battery company. Getting young people into the world of batteries requires investment in them, and guidance. With the right support and guidance a PhD student can produce some excellent research. But without the right funding they will go to do something else, or a PhD in another field. »

Grace : « I believe the answer is undergraduate students. Talking about the Brazil scenario, I would like to see the industry work more with universities. For example, investing in programs to develop new projects for undergraduate students. I think that would be a win/win situation : The students would have the opportunity to work on a real life problem and learn about the lead battery from experts ; and the company would have the opportunity to work with new researchers and  a new university department. This is a great way for students to be more prepared before they join a lead battery company.

I think even quick programs like a “Battery Marathon”, something like a Hackathon, would make students curios about the area and  starttheir development from college. Today, at ITEMM we are already making this approach. Recently we started the implementation of a research and innovation center in a technical college in the city, focused on developing young talent.»

CBI : Would you recommend the lead battery industry as a place to work for young scientists?

Miguel : « I recommend the lead battery industry to anyone interested in energy storage. It is a well-known technology but there is still a lot of room for improvement, and research is always interesting and fun. From my work I especially like the direct relationship with the industry, which is eager to generate more and more research projects. This year at ELBC, I have learned a lot and it has been a very rewarding experience to learn about the latest advances in research and also to see what the market trends are. »

Grace : « I do recommend. The more I work on the field the more I see there is still so much room for new ideas. It is a great time to be working in the battery field! Environmental care is one of the major concerns around the world, and batteries are key to this! One of the great things about the lead battery industry is that we are a safe technology, critical for energy storage, which helps reduce the global carbon footprint. Something people forget is that we are also an industry that has a true circular economy. »

Both Max and Miguel won this year’s CBI & EUROBAT Student Award, a great way to promote their work in the industry by bringing them to ELBC 2022 as speakers. In 2022, CBI also visited ITEMM in Brazil, where we had the chance to meet Grace and learn about her work at the Research and Development Department.

Interested about their work with CBI? Check out our blogs and videos:

CBI Project Update: Fraunhofer ISC and Wroclaw University to improve DCA using carbon additives

This European research collaboration aims to optimise lead battery performance for micro-hybrids. Researchers from Fraunhofer ISC and Wroclaw University are investigating the effect of carbon surface chemistry on the battery performance, and the goal is to understand which kind of surface chemistry is beneficial for improved charging and discharging behaviour for lead batteries.

Research projects like this one are proving to be relevant for wider scientific topics, such as low-emission vehicles, electrification and decarbonisation, as well as for carbon additive research.

According to Expert Group Manager from Fraunhofer ISC, Jochen Settelein, to follow the energy transition, batteries play a central role and lead batteries are safe, highly recyclable, produced at a low cost and the entire value chain exists within single countries or regions. By undertaking research and innovation into the lead battery technology, researchers are finding their way to adapt this « well-established technology » to the needs and requirements of the current energy transition.

Through this specific project, CBI is bringing together leading European researchers, scientists, and institutions to work towards a common goal, achieving CBI’s Technical Roadmap goals for the automotive sector, such as improving DCA.

Watch full video about this project here:

Electrification drives automotive lead battery enhancements

A key goal of CBI’s Technical Roadmap to improve the DCA of lead batteries, a technical parameter highly relevant for the automotive industry which encompasses lower emission vehicles such as start-stop, micro-hybrids and electric vehicles.

The CBI-funded project "Best practice of cell testing for EFB regarding DCA and high-temperature durability" delivers a significant improvement of DCA while also delivering uncompromised water consumption and improved corrosion durability.

With project partners from across the European value chain – universities TU Berlin and Fraunhofer ISC, car company Ford and battery manufacturer Moll in– this project encompasses the diverse players involved in Europe’s innovative lead battery industry.

As the automotive industry continues to move towards decarbonisation and electrification, new functions are required to increase safety and comfort.  “These trends impose growing demands on the energy storage devices used within automobiles. In order to take advantage of these opportunities and defend against competition from other technologies, the lead battery must continue to adapt and improve”, explains Sophia Bauknecht from TU Berlin.

This project in particular is essential for the growing start-stop and micro-hybrid market as “Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA) and water loss are critical factors for the efficiency and lifetime of start-stop batteries, and they need to be improved to stay competitive with other battery technologies”, says Prof. Dr Julia Kowal from TU Berlin.

“Changes in the material synthesis and preparation are needed for cost-efficient and faster material developments. Especially if it works to measure the DCA from a simple measurement of a reduced size cell, improvement of DCA can become much faster because only small cells are needed for material screening and then only the promising materials need to be scaled up to complete batteries”, she continued.

Lead batteries are a vital part of automotive applications, including SLI, start-stop and micro-hybrid applications. As the industry shifts towards electrification, this technology will continue to evolve and adapt in order to provide better safety and security features through secondary low-voltage EV batteries, EFB and AGM batteries.

Pre-competitive research projects underway through CBI’s Technical Program, like this one, not only help CBI to develop better practices for the industry, but also strengthen the collaborative work between automotive manufacturers and battery application specialists to continue the innovation push driven by CBI.

Watch Part II video of CBI's visit to TU Berlin

Interested in related topics ?

We are hiring a Research & Innovation Manager based in North Carolina – Position Closed

About the job

CBI Research and Innovation Manager Position

Location Durham, North Carolina preferred

Contract Initial contract 18 months

Hours 35 (full time)

Job Summary

The Consortium for Battery Innovation, a rapidly growing global battery research consortium, is seeking candidates for an 18-month position as CBI Research and Innovation to be based at its North American office in Durham, North Carolina.

The successful candidate will have excellent scientific knowledge, ideally including battery technologies, in addition to strong communications and interpersonal skills. The candidate is expected to efficiently manage a diverse portfolio of technical activities working independently.

Required Qualifications

Preferred Qualifications

Job Responsibilities

This role will involve regular North American, European and Asian travel.


The salary and benefits package will be commensurate with education and experience.

About CBI

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is a global innovation hub which supports cutting-edge pre-competitive research and promotion of innovation in lead battery technology. The consortium includes more than 100 member companies and organizations worldwide, consisting of lead producers, battery manufacturers, battery users, materials suppliers and research institutions.

The candidate would be joining a vibrant and dedicated team, with offices in Brussels, North Carolina, and London. More information can be found here.


Interested candidates should submit a CV and cover letter to by October 16, 2022.

We are committed to equal opportunities and creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. We welcome applicants regardless of ethnic origin, national origin, gender, race, color, religious beliefs, disability, sexual orientation or age.

Communications Manager for North Carolina Office – Position Closed

About the job

The Consortium for Battery Innovation, a rapidly growing global battery research consortium is looking to appoint an experienced communication manager to support our corporate communications programme, handling the full range of disciplines including external, digital and member/internal communications.

The role will report to the CBI Director, and is an opportunity to help deliver and influence a wide range of innovative communications projects and campaigns in Europe, the US, Asia and Africa. The post will be based from the CBI office in Durham, North Carolina.

Job Title Communications Manager

Location Durham, North Carolina preferred

Contract Initial contract 18 months

Hours 35 (full time)

Required Qualifications

Job Responsibilities

This role will involve regular North American travel and occasional European and Asian travel (15-25% time)


The salary and benefits package will be commensurate with education and experience.

About CBI

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is a global innovation hub which supports cutting-edge pre-competitive research and promotion of innovation in lead battery technology. The consortium includes more than 100 member companies and organizations worldwide, consisting of lead producers, battery manufacturers, battery users, materials suppliers and research institutions.

The candidate would be joining a vibrant and dedicated team, with offices in North Carolina, and London. More information can be found here.


Interested candidates should submit a CV and cover letter to by October 21, 2022.

We are committed to equal opportunities and creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. We welcome applicants regardless of ethnic origin, national origin, gender, race, color, religious beliefs, disability, sexual orientation or age.

Alignment between Europe’s car industry and battery specialists through research

One of the highest priority goals set out in CBI’s Technical Roadmap is improving DCA –Dynamic Charge Acceptance for automotive lead batteries.

It’s a key area of work that CBI works with universities, research institutes, battery companies and car manufacturers around the world to tackle.

At TU Berlin, an ongoing research project has identified that on a battery level “single-pulse test for DCA and continuous overcharging for water consumption bear only weak correlation with results obtained under field conditions, particularly when most advanced (high DCA) battery technologies are addressed”, says Sophia Baucknecht, Graduate Research Scientist from TU Berlin.

As part of the research team made up of TU Berlin, Fraunhofer ISC, Ford and Moll, Sophia’s research aims for a better alignment and co-operation between car makers and battery application specialists.

With what aim? To establish best practice cell-testing for EFB regarding DCA and high-temperature durability.

These two metrics are vital for the enhanced performance of automotive lead batteries used across the global vehicle fleet, such as start-stop and micro-hybrids.

The research is increasing the efficiency of lead batteries by “finding out if lab-cell tests of DCA and water loss can be scaled up to a complete battery”, explains Prof. Dr Julia Kowal from TU Berlin.

If there’s higher efficiency and better charge acceptance, “less energy is lost during charging and braking and so the fuel consumption is reduced”, she continues. This is a critical step for automotive battery innovation towards decarbonisation and electrification for more fuel-efficient cars with a lower carbon footprint.

Watch the first video on CBI's visit to TU Berlin:

Interested in related topics?

ELBC 2022: CBI’S contribution to the future of the industry

The Global Lead Battery Innovation Conference and Expo (ELBC), co-organised for the first time by CBI, took place in Lyon, France (6-9 Sept).

As a warm-up to the main conference, CBI brought together lead battery industry experts from all over the world, to take part in:

On day one of ELBC, CBI’s Director (Dr Alistair Davison) set out a positive assessment of the opportunities for advanced lead batteries highlighting CBI’s roadmap, which charts a path to a new generation of batteries in a session dedicated to Markets and Trends.

And CBI technical experts, including Begüm Bozkaya, Technical Manager, outlined the CBI technical program with an insightful presentation focusing on improving energy storage systems and automotive batteries as key innovations in the industry.

To promote CBI’s Technical Roadmap and its work in driving innovation across the industry Dr Matthew Raiford, CBI’s Senior Technical Manager updated delegates. And in a major announcement, Dr Carl Telford impressed ELBC attendees with news of a 10 million Euro funding award for an innovative lead-battery powered microgrid project in Africa, brokered by CBI.

In his presentation entitled « Opportunities for Lead Batteries in Energy Storage Systems », Dr Telford spoke about the use of lead batteries for sustainable energy projects and presented for the first time this novel project funded by the European Commission that gathers lead batteries, renewables, and hydrogen.

As always at ELBC there were many networking opportunities, with delegates able to meet face to face for the first time in four years. The well-attended gala dinner took place at La Sucrière, and WGBI’s (Women in the Global Battery Industry) held its first meeting in Europe. This important initiative aims to bring more women to our industry and empower them through networking sessions, workshops, and mentoring opportunities.

CBI is very much looking forward to seeing all these fantastic attendees and delegates again at ELBC 2024 in Milan, Italy.

Watch the Event video:

Renewables, batteries and hydrogen: working together for the clean energy transition

The share of renewables for electricity generation by 2030 is expected to grow to 35%, and this global shift is relying on innovative technologies to harness this energy in clean, affordable and sustainable ways.

A big focus area for this shift is how to ensure that the clean energy transition fairly includes communities in parts of the world without reliable access to electricity or energy resources.

Responding to Europe’s Horizon call for funding proposals, a consortium of organizations spanning the energy, batteries, hydrogen academic and NGO sectors has joined together to develop a novel concept called LoCEL-H2.

Aiming to develop a sustainable, scalable, multi-vector energy solution to improve the lives of vulnerable communities, the project is based on renewables, battery storage and a novel hydrogen technology for cooking/fuel.

Low-cost, Circular, plug & play, off-grid Energy for remote Locations including Hydrogen, LoCEL-H2 is recognising the need for a fair energy transition across the globe and working to deploy pilots in two communities that have no access to reliable sources of energy.

Remote community in Africa (Ivory Coast).

This innovative concept includes battolyser hydrogen technology under development at Loughborough University, which will be used as cooking fuel for the communities where the modular off-grid energy solutions will be installed.

The future needs innovation. And it needs technologies to work together and complement each other to deliver innovative solutions for the clean energy transition. Bringing together different sectors, each with expertise in various technologies and energy solutions, LoCEL-H2 aims to ensure clean energy is paired with socioeconomic benefits for remote communities around the world.

See Press Release here.

Watch the first video about the project:

Battery electric vehicle charging buffers

The global market for electrified vehicles is expanding. To support this growth, robust vehicle charging infrastructure will be required. Indeed, recent studies suggest that between two and three million public chargers will be required in the European Union through 2030.

As part of an initial four-project funding push in Europe, CBI and members are developing a project concept focusing on the use of lead batteries in electric vehicle (EV) charging applications, primarily as a buffer solution. 

Rapid chargers can charge a standard BEV from 20% to 80% state of charge in approximately 30 minutes at a 50kW output power. However, they are restricted to areas where the supply can sustain a sudden 50kW load. In some cases, grid reinforcement will be required to enable installation rapid chargers and guarantee sufficient power is available. 

One solution to this significant issue is to deploy battery buffers. Battery buffered EV charging does not require disruptive and expensive grid reinforcement. 

There are also other benefits – it is possible to charge the batteries with renewable energy (for instance, solar or wind) to either provide primary power or augment an existing grid connection

CBI with our project partners will develop and deploy a lead-battery-buffered BEV charging solution for one or more specific scenarios, for instance sites in remote or limited-grid-capability locations.

Lead batteries offer some interesting technical advantages in applications where charger use can be infrequent. They are excellent at high state of charge (SOC). In comparison to other battery technologies, lead batteries are safe to use, as they contain water-based electrolyte, which does not present significant risks to customers or the environment. 

 Lead batteries also have the potential to reduce overall system overhead cost—by eliminating the need for balancing electronics, air conditioning & thermal management. In addition, the global lead battery industry is well positioned to capitalize, due to its sustainability & circularity, mature regulation, robust supply chain, and strong safety record.

We are in currently in discussion with vehicle OEMs, charging station operators, and out network of battery experts to bring this project to reality.

As part of an initial four-project funding push in Europe, CBI and members are developing a project concept focusing on the use of lead batteries in electric vehicle (EV) charging applications, primarily as a buffer solution. 

Rapid chargers can charge a standard BEV from 20% to 80% state of charge in approximately 30 minutes at a 50kW output power. However, they are restricted to areas where the supply can sustain a sudden 50kW load. In some cases, grid reinforcement will be required to enable installation rapid chargers and guarantee sufficient power is available. 

One solution to this significant issue is to deploy battery buffers. Battery buffered EV charging does not require disruptive and expensive grid reinforcement. 

There are also other benefits – it is possible to charge the batteries with renewable energy (for instance, solar or wind) to either provide primary power or augment an existing grid connection

CBI with our project partners will develop and deploy a lead-battery-buffered BEV charging solution for one or more specific scenarios, for instance sites in remote or limited-grid-capability locations.

Lead batteries offer some interesting technical advantages in applications where charger use can be infrequent. They are excellent at high state of charge (SOC). In comparison to other battery technologies, lead batteries are safe to use, as they contain water-based electrolyte, which does not present significant risks to customers or the environment. 

 Lead batteries also have the potential to reduce overall system overhead cost—by eliminating the need for balancing electronics, air conditioning & thermal management. In addition, the global lead battery industry is well positioned to capitalize, due to its sustainability & circularity, mature regulation, robust supply chain, and strong safety record.

We are in currently in discussion with vehicle OEMs, charging station operators, and out network of battery experts to bring this project to reality.

Watch the video about the project here

By Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager

Fundamental Research to Probe Pb’s Big Questions

Dr Paul Everill, Chief Technology Officer at Black Diamond Structures LLC, joins the ALBA mini blog series to share insight into the “Mechanisms and morphology limiting charge acceptance’ breakout session.


Battery development based on iterative component variation testing is the lead industry’s modus operandi. The tactic, however, is considered by some to be “foraging in the dark” since a company must be prepared to accept many wrong turns before a goal is met. That company must further accept that the process will need repeated every few years as new components hit the market. 

An efficient development plan includes a portion of fundamental research; an element of deep science that develops strong structure/function relationships more reliant on true understanding of the system rather than a transitory “1 + 1 = 3, I don’t know why, but I’ll take it for now” mentality.   

Six breakout sessions were held during the ALBA workshop

The Consortium for Battery Innovation encourages such understanding through precompetitive, collaborative research. One embodiment is the Automotive Lead Battery Advancement workshop (ALBA), conceived by Ford Motor Company’s Dr. Eckhard Karden, where some of the world’s leading battery scientists discuss lead’s deeper mechanistic and morphological questions:

Crucially, these topics are not academic novelties destined to be buried in the annals of an obscure journal. They are critical questions which, when answered, can direct battery developers to create the next generation of batteries smartly, “with the lights on”.

By Dr Paul Everill, Black Diamond Structures

Interested in related topics? Read some more of CBI's blogs:

Carbon additives for enhancing lead battery performance

The Graphene Council organized the “Commercialization Conference” and invited CBI's Technical Manager, Begüm Bokaya to speak at the event.

Carbon additives like graphene can increase the cycle life and charge acceptance of advanced lead batteries, which are critical for energy storage and automotive applications.

Learn more about the event and carbon additives for lead batteries in the video from the event.

Moving forward innovation in automotive batteries

Do you know how to properly measure the cold crank amps (CCA) or dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) using bench-top cells? 

I didn't until six years ago, not until the lead battery industry started a series of intensive workshops named DCA & Heat - now called the Automotive Lead Battery Advancements (ALBA) workshops. 

The ALBA workshops serve as the key forum for developing know-how and advancing research in 12 V lead batteries for automotive applications. One of the most consistent topics of the breakout discussions for ALBA has been based around cell-level testing, how to properly perform high-throughput research in a laboratory using bench-top small lead battery cells.

Cell-level testing breakout session at the ALBA Workshop

In the latest iteration of ALBA workshops held in Bergamo, Italy - organised by CBI in partnership with CENELEC and headed by Ford's Eckhard Karden - this specific breakout session on the evolution of cell testing and development was characterized by topics focused on:

Cell-level testing in laboratories is the fastest and highest throughput method for moving innovation in lead batteries, and this session pushed developments in DCA and high-temperature endurance, which are key performance indicators for micro-hybrid and auxiliary applications outlined in CBI's Technical Roadmap.

Keep an eye out for future blogs where colleagues from the global lead battery industry join CBI's blog to share insights from the other breakout sessions held during the ALBA workshops.

By Dr Matt Raiford

Energy storage trip to Malawi with Innovate UK

The role of battery energy storage in low and middle-income economies is increasingly important as a way to deliver clean, sustainable energy. 

For many it means access to reliable power supporting everything from schools and education to cooking and refrigeration. 

CBI is exploring opportunities to use lead batteries in energy storage systems such as microgrids, alongside a novel hydrogen-production technology (called The Battolyser) that also uses lead battery components.

Innovate UK invited CBI to visit Malawi, a country in Sub-Saharan East Africa, as part of its Energy Catalyst programme.

We joined start-ups, clean tech companies and connected with public and private energy organisations in Malawi, including the Malawi government, energy associations and the UK High Commission.

But, above all, we were able to learn first-hand the challenges and needs of local communities.

Designed to help companies find project partners who are applying for funding through Innovate-UK’s Energy Catalyst programme, the trip involved visiting existing microgrids and talking to local experts and communities. 

CBI is now working with Loughborough University and two Malawi-based energy solutions providers to develop a strong bid for Energy Catalyst Round 9.

This £1 million project to develop an energy storage solution including electrical energy storage and renewable hydrogen, will be submitted in August 2022.

Watch the video of the trip below

By Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager at CBI

CBI team visits Grupo Moura, leading battery manufacturer in Brazil

We are proud to have members highly committed to research and innovation, aiming to improve the role of lead batteries in applications for energy storage systems!

CBI visited Grupo Moura in Brazil to learn about the innovation underway happening there in battery technology and their research work building on the goals of CBI's Technical Roadmap.

Watch the project visit video below.

How energy storage targets will accelerate the rollout of battery solutions

ELBC Speaker Blog

As Europe strives for carbon neutrality by 2050, batteries have become an essential part of the energy storage mix. Patrick Clerens, Secretary General of the European Association for Storage of Energy (EASE), shares a preview of his ELBC presentation taking place on Thursday 8 September.

The announcement made in July 2021 by the European Commission, aiming to make the EU carbon neutral by 2050 with a 55% emission reduction goal by 2030 raises several issues regarding the feasibility of such ambitious objectives. The subsequent rapid uptake of renewables requires a parallel deployment of energy storage solutions not only to provide critical grid services needed to integrate wind and solar, but also to cope with rising curtailment and to ensure energy security at moments of low renewables production. However, the current growth of energy storage solutions does not mirror that of renewables uptake today and urgently needs to be addressed.

A necessary solution to this is setting energy storage targets that go in hand with existing renewables targets in the broader frame of a European strategy for energy storage. Such targets would be in line with the EU best practices as climate targets already exist today in many sectors successfully driving the energy transition. Furthermore, energy storage targets are already in place in a number of regions including California in the USA and Greece and Spain in Europe.

Thus, EASE considers the implementation of targets at EU level to be a key driver for the boosted uptake of new storage solutions by fostering innovation and investment. Among the different storage solutions currently on the market, batteries can greatly benefit from this incentive as they provide grid services which are critical to integrating variable sources of energy like solar or wind but also play a key role in daily energy shifting for both front-of-meter and behind-the-meter applications.

A range of lithium-based batteries already provide critical grid services today in Europe and also bring an answer to the ever-growing need for daily energy shifting in the residential segment. The incredible demand for energy storage indicates other domestic battery technologies in the EU, such as lead batteries, could and should play an even greater role in the energy storage battery mix.

Finally, the case of flow batteries and other hybrid derivatives is particularly interesting as it allows for longer-duration storage, an extremely valuable application which minimises curtailment and can help meet inter-seasonal peak demand when renewable production is low.

In conclusion, energy storage targets have the potential to enable innovation and further accelerate uptake of batteries which remain a trusted, proven technology and an indispensable part of the energy transition.

Innovative battery development underway at Advanced Battery Concepts

CBI visited member company Advanced Battery Concepts, based in Clare, Michigan, to find out more about their innovative advanced bipolar batteries.

Active in the growing energy storage sector, ABC undertakes work focusing on advancing battery technologies to meet the technical needs of renewable energy such as wind and solar.

The facility in Clare, Michigan is where ABC do all of the engineering, equipment development and processes to make a better battery - an advanced bipolar lead battery. As the most recent winner of BCI's Innovation Award, ABC are being recognized for their work in contributing to advances in the global lead battery industry.

Advanced lead battery technologies are critical in the national and global shift to incorporating more renewables onto the grid and delivering affordable, reliable energy.

Interested in related topics? Read some more of CBI's blogs:

Project update: Energy storage lead battery research at Warwick and Loughborough

Working with researchers at the University of Warwick and Loughborough University, this project aims to gain more knowledge on the best use of lead batteries, particularly in the growing area of battery energy storage which is crucial to the greater adoption of low carbon generation. 

In energy storage service batteries experience frequent charge and discharge cycles of varying depth. For a battery technology to be acceptable batteries must retain a substantial fraction of their initial charge storage capability over many cycles – hence the challenging target set by the CBI of 5,000 cycles. 

Growing energy storage demand is driving increased need for batteries, and batteries with enhanced performance. CBI’s new Technical Roadmap is answering the call for better batteries by identifying key ways in which advanced lead batteries can maximize their performance for energy storage systems.

Lead batteries have the key benefits of safety and recyclability, and when you are talking about home storage units, fire safety becomes a huge concern. Lead batteries are far safer than many other chemistries and this project, using batteries with metal cases and ensuring that the correct operating window is maintained, adds extra confidence to the already excellent safety record of lead batteries.

The kind of collaborative research underway at the University of Warwick and Loughborough University is just what the lead battery industry needs to deliver higher-performing batteries and continue the innovation momentum of the technology. 

Energy storage systems require safe, sustainable and reliable batteries, and lead batteries with higher cycle life and reduced system cost will be more attractive for all types of energy storage applications.

Using neutron diffraction to improve the lifetime of energy storage lead batteries

There are clear goals from the EU to decarbonize and decrease the reliance on fossil fuels. Understanding the fundamental contributors to lead battery failure at a molecular level will enable stronger cycling performance of lead batteries in all applications, such as microhybrid and energy storage applications. Batteries in these applications serve as the main tool to decarbonize the European utility grid and automotive fleet, the most important areas underpinning the EU Green Deal.

The main objective of this project is to analyze the different electrochemical processes and reactions that take place inside the battery electrodes during operation. To this end, CBI, INMA, and Exide Group are using, for the first time, in-operando neutron scattering techniques by placing real operating cells, built using the same components as in the factories, in a neutron instrument and collecting diffraction patterns and images from inside the cell, with both spatial and time resolutions, during the charge and discharge processes.

Also using neutrons because its penetration capacity in matter is much higher than that of other particles, as X-rays or electrons, used until now for battery analyses. In this way, it's possible to study real thick cells, about one centimeter in thickness, in real operating conditions.

This is an approach never used before in lead cells.

INMA's laboratory

Learn more about this project through our project update video:

Celebrating Earth Day

Every year since 1970 people all over the globe celebrate Earth Day to support the dialogue and actions taken towards the preservation of our planet, its environment, sustainability, and its future.

Today at CBI, we want to celebrate this day too by sharing some of the key ways in which the potential of our technology is being unlocked through research and innovation, to contribute to the goals of Earth Day. 

Lead batteries are active in this space in two key ways: low-emission mobility and renewable energy storage.

One of our main research focuses at CBI is to expand the technology’s performance in the automotive industry, from start-stop technology to low voltage EV batteries. 

We're working with leading research institutes, battery manufacturers, and car companies to drive forward this progress to improve dynamic charge acceptance (DCA). You can read more about these projects here

Renewable energy storage also has a major role in the current energy transition across the globe, delivering clean, reliable power. Some of the recent examples we've added to our interactive map of energy storage projects, which showcases our members in all regions of the world providing advanced lead battery storage, are below:

This is just a snapshot of how the global lead battery industry is underpinning the clean energy transition in diverse sectors, from science and safari to manufacturing.

Innovation is key to sustainability. Technology progress is supported by fundamental scientific research into the chemistry, to help make better batteries, and CBI’s 2022 Request for Proposals is calling on industry, scientists, and researchers to join us on this innovation journey.

From energy storage systems using renewable energy to cutting-edge research developments, these are some of the highlights of our recognition of the importance of Earth Day, every day. As our mission to support the energy transition grows, CBI will continue to work with the global lead battery industry to ensure lead batteries are ready to meet future opportunities

The role of sci-comms in innovating and diversifying the industry

Following this year’s International Women’s Day, we’ve interviewed some of the faces behind the communication strategies of our industry. People who work daily to demonstrate the effort of an industry towards climate goals, such as decarbonisation and electrification, while sharing messages of the industry’s work to achieve sustainable targets, science progress and innovation.

These are the professionals who are responsible for the communications of a long-standing industry, so essential in the digital world. They deal with a considerable amount of daily information and they’re able to transform the complex world of science to policymakers, business people and citizens in dynamic and understandable ways. And guess what? Many of them are women!

But why is it that the role of comms has become more important than ever? And what can these experts in the field tell us about the relevance of “sci-comms”? 

According to Tammy Stankey, Director of Communications at The Doe Run Company, innovation in comunication is key in order to be modern and relevant, whilst for Fareha Lasker, Communications Manager at the International Lead Association, these are very exciting times to work for the lead and lead battery industry:

"The industry presents a dream messaging scenario­ — huge market demand combined with a key role for our technologies in the clean future of the planet means it’s a time of obvious and great opportunity. We know that the next 10 years will see unprecedented growth in demand for battery energy storage to support a clean energy future and that advanced lead batteries have a key role to play in applications which will enable rapid electrification of our economy and society".

The group agreed that it’s "essential" for investment in the industry’s comms departments, and as Niamh Owen-McLaughlin, Communications and Digital Manager at CBI, explained, it’s about telling a story of an experienced industry that has witnessed not only evolution but also "innovation, progress and research" and it’s also important to share the "importance of the technology" for the future :

"Without comms, a lot of our stakeholders would never hear the story of innovation that we have to tell, and would never think of advanced lead batteries as a technology which is used all over the world for clean energy storage, for vehicles, for low-emission vehicles and in so many more applications".

Tammy gave an example on how a strong comms department brings even more success to the industry :

"When I first became involved in the industry I was invited to sit on the Public Affairs and Marketing committee of what was then the ALABC (now CBI). As a communications professional it was obvious to me that our industry was suffering from a lack of visibility. Our committee pushed hard to have demonstration projects promoted at high-profile events such as The Battery Show. The greater visibility that these projects received, the more interest was created among companies to fund basic science research and demonstration projects. The effort is paying off, as we now see government agencies (such as the U.S. Department of Energy) proactively reaching out to our industry to identify the greatest opportunities for research and technology development to support the Energy Storage Grand Challenge".

But how is comms driving innovation in the industry?

"The more that we can communicate the innovation underway in lead batteries, driven by the efforts of the global lead battery industry, the more we can increase funding and opportunities for further research and development. We are showing that our technology is not one of the past but instead one that is currently used all over the world in so many diverse and critical applications, and that we’re confident through continued research that the innovation journey lead batteries are on has only just begun", Niamh continued.

Considering the amount of legislative and regulatory proposals in the pipeline around the world designed to improve and accelerate sustainable technologies, "by communicating the innovation in lead and lead batteries across many of these – from lead cables enabling wind power to lead batteries supporting EVs – we are ensuring our industries stand out among those. Communicators across our industry are successfully bringing together the right influencers across policymakers, regulators and industry to understand and appreciate that we are part of the innovative solutions to achieving their low carbon goals. In keeping us at the front of their minds, we’re ensuring we remain at the heart of the energy transition", completed Fareha.

Progress in the industry should also target goals of diversity within the workforce, as Lisa Dry, Vice President of Strategic Communications - Battery Council International and Essential Energy Everyday, explained :

"BCI’s leadership has recognized that the lead battery and recycling industry needs to reflect a more diverse and inclusive culture. One step in that direction is the new Women in the Global Battery Industry professional organization to help women in the industry grow their careers. Studies show that women are better employees than men in several categories including organizational development and coaching talent. At a time when the competition for employees is fierce, it’s critically important to help current employees reach their maximum potential."

There’s clearly a common desire to see more women working for the industry and reaching leadership positions, but to attract and retain bright minds we must be willing to reach out to a more diverse audience, something that the industry is very open to do:

"I have seen firsthand how open and welcoming the industry is to others and I have personally benefited from the comradery of the industry by getting involved. This has allowed me access to participate in various committees and even the executive committees of associations. I encourage other woman to look for opportunities to share their expertise and build their network in this industry", added Tammy.

Sci-comms is critical to demonstrate the innovation underway in our industry, and these communicators are responsible for sharing accurate messages in times where misinformation is a trend. This is our tribute to each and every professional behind a strategic comms role in the scientific field, where diversity is still not a reality.

Project update: Energy boost – automotive EU battery research


Best practices of cell testing for EFB regarding DCA and high-temperature durability




24 months


The automotive industry understands that advanced lead batteries have much improved dynamic charge acceptance (DCA), a key technical parameter for hybrid vehicles. However there have been concerns about side-effects caused by high DCA. Research has demonstrated that these side-effects are related to the way batteries are tested, and not how they actually perform in the car when on the road, in 'real-world' conditions.

This research project with Ford, TU Berlin, Fraunhofer ISC and Moll Batterien aims to create synergy between cell-level testing and ‘real-world’ field tests, to demonstrate that advanced lead batteries can meet all the OEM requirements for current and future micro-hybrids. This growing market is predicted to represent 80% of new cars in Europe by 2030, and provides higher fuel efficiency combined with reduced CO2 emissions in vehicles.

By improving cell-level test methods, this project will allow material developers and battery manufacturers to improve the performance of automotive lead batteries.

This collaboration involving Ford, a leading automotive company, means that the most innovative and highest-performing lead batteries will be available for future vehicles. 


Project update

At Fraunhofer ISC, the work in the last six months involved weight loss and gas flow measurements on 2 V laboratory cells by applying different overcharge tests under various conditions. It is very crucial to determine accurate weight losses in small laboratory cells to perform high temperature tests, as these cells differentiate significantly from commercial automotive batteries.

At TU Berlin, 2 V laboratory cells containing different cell layouts were extracted from selected 12 V automotive batteries (EFB type) to perform DCA and water consumption tests. Both static overcharge test and new key life test (nKLT) were scaled down to 2 V cell-level. Important findings including correlation between charge balance and weight loss were concluded.

This project gives a comprehensive picture of water loss, corrosion and dynamic charge acceptance. These best practice cell-level evaluation methods can possibly be utilized by material developers and battery manufacturers to improve the performance of lead batteries. By doing this, a significant acceleration of R&D towards the challenging KPIs stated in the CBI technical roadmap can be facilitated.

View the project update video:

View the project press release

10 December 2020

Europe’s new energy mix supported by batteries

Renewable energy is a cornerstone of Europe’s shift to a decarbonised future. And one of the technologies acting as a driving force for the increasing deployment of renewable energy projects is advanced lead batteries. 

Batteries are key for storing energy generated through renewable sources such as wind and solar, a critical part of making this new energy mix more reliable. In Norway, electrification efforts are intensifying particularly around the use of renewables energy, and CBI member WaveTech Group, Inc. has recently announced their partnership with OneCo’s efforts to streamline the process.

Advanced lead batteries have been innovating in new ways in recent years, driven by the work of the global industry and CBI to ensure the technology continues to play a significant role in decarbonisation and electrification aims. Some of the key ways outlined in CBI’s Technical Roadmap specifically focused on the energy storage sector is for increased cycle life and energy efficiency for advanced lead batteries.

BEAT product(s), that houses WaveTech's Crystal Control Technology, being tested on lead batteries

The partnership with OneCo is based on WaveTech’s unique solutions, offering Crystal Control Technology (CCT) for lead batteries resulting in enhanced performance and longer lifetime for use in the energy storage sector. The technology is based on applying a specifically modulated periodic signal during charge, and closely monitoring the state of charge and state of health of the battery. The innovation is used currently in the telecoms sector, where lead batteries globally represent the majority of battery demand. WaveTech’s R&D department is currently optimizing the technology for doubling the lifetime and tripling the energy throughput of the batteries for this and other stationary energy storage applications. 

The benefits of Crystal Control Technology help WaveTech to charge the batteries faster and more efficiently. The power pulses sent to the battery enhance the mobility of ions in the electrolyte and optimize crystallization in the positive and negative plates of the battery. The surface of the plates remains active, sulfation is slowed down, and the highly porous microstructure of the lead and lead dioxide crystals formed in the active materials is kept sustainable. This results in a range of benefits including better battery power performance and longer life, reduction in charge energy consumption and hence lower CO2 footprint of battery operation. 

Smart lead batteries are behind safer electric vehicles

For most EVs, low-voltage lead batteries (also known as auxiliary batteries) are a key component of the multi-battery system present in the vehicle. In combination with the high-voltage battery system, low-voltage EV lead batteries ensure the vehicle can function and provide power for critical safety features.

In 2021, a CBI blog on the critical role of lead batteries for EV safety was published by the World Economic Forum(WEF), demonstrating the importance of the technology for this application which is driving policy changes across Europe and the globe.

You can read about the various ways that 12 V lead batteries are powering critical safety functions on-board EVs here, but I want to look at some of the ways this market is proving so important for the global lead battery industry and how our industry is innovating to meet evolving technical demand.

Across Europe’s 27 member states, it is predicted that 50% of newly registered vehicles by 2030 will be plug-in hybrid EVs and full EVs, and the importance of lead batteries for these vehicles to provide safe and reliable baseline of power will only grow in significance.

By 2030, it is predicted that in Europe, 50% of new vehicles will be plug-in hybrid EVs and full EVs.

As a battery technology, lead batteries provide a reliable storage device with an inherent safe chemistry and a sustainable closed-loop raw material cycle, with almost 100% recycled at end-of-life in Europe and North America. The unique benefits of the technology will be important to meet growing consumer expectations for safety, comfort and connectivity. 

The advanced lead batteries used for these low-emission vehicles are continuing to innovate and develop based on the evolving needs of the market. 

As more advanced driver assist sensor systems like lidar-, radar- and optical AI- systems are added to vehicles with the goal to enable autonomous vehicle functionality at level 3 and above, there will be an even greater reliance and predictability on the low-voltage battery.

An integrated part of the power train, the storage system needs to self-diagnose potential issues in the battery before they happen and anticipate required maintenance or replacement. The storage system also needs to provide emergency power critical for EV and autonomous vehicles and to be capable of communicating this capability to the drive train.

So the role of the lead battery in an EV is changing from an engine-starting application, to the new low-voltage storage systems for the specific duty cycle of an auxiliary battery system.

All of these elements are driving the innovation underway in low-voltage lead batteries to ensure the highest performing lead batteries are provided for the automotive industry. 

Clarios, a global leader in advanced lead battery technology, has announced a smart AGM battery system which will sense, diagnose and communicate in real-time the condition of the battery in an electric vehicle. This functionality will be combined with the ability to support safety critical functions as well as anticipating required maintenance or replacement.

Smart AGM battery by Clarios.

Clarios’ newest innovation is seizing the opportunities present in the growing global market for electric vehicles and is due to debut in the next two to three years.

This innovative battery is just one example of the way in which our industry is innovating to meet future market opportunities based on the global shift to a cleaner, low-carbon future.

By Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios

Interested in related topics? Read some more of CBI's blogs:

Europe’s innovative battery: Part 2

As Europe stives for energy independence and a transition to a low-carbon future, the role of batteries underpinning this shift continues to grow in importance. 

Following on from the wide-ranging innovation featured in part 1 of Europe’s innovation blog series, part 2 begins with insight into the collaborative “AddESun” project. Launched in 2017, researchers led by the Fraunhofer Institute and part funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, aim to safeguard the future of lead batteries.

With goals including more sustainable production, improved charging behaviour, longer service life and higher power density, the research focused on researching new additives and their effect on battery properties. Fundamental research such as this complements the work underway on the industry driven by CBI’s Technical Roadmap to ensure the role of lead battery technology in contributing to Europe’s strong battery industry. 

Moving to the University of Brno in the Czech Republic, scientists have been active for many years in researching advanced lead batteries through additives, the influence of temperature on impedance changes and effects on lead electrodes.

Battery monitoring during operation is a key area of research underway within the lead battery industry, aiming to uncover new insights into the technology with the ultimate aim of enhancing various battery performance metrics such as state-of-charge and state-of-health to ensure longer service life.

Published last year, innovative work underway at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, led by Dr Boris Shirov and Dr Iliyan Popov, features a lead-air battery aiming to improve energy performance. The technology shows that the positive electrode in a conventional lead battery can be replaced with a gas diffusion electrode (GDE), increasing the specific energy of the system by up to 52%.

Batteries cycling equipment in the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences lab

At the French research institute of CEA-Liten, a new non-destructive and non-intrusive characterization techniques was proposed by researchers for lead batteries. Consisting of installing two piezoelectric transducers on the surface of a battery and studying the transport of ultrasonic acoustic waves, the research obtained an accurate and direct estimation of the state of charge and could be used for better management of advanced lead batteries. 

In the University of Southampton, the advancement of lead batteries has been a key topic for researchers, particularly focused on redox flow lead technology. Relevant to utility-scale energy storage and load levelling applications, this research demonstrates the continued need for innovation amongst all battery technologies to meet heightened demand for reliable energy storage. 

With the aim to accelerate the transition to sustainability and decarbonisation, the FAAM Research Center, the R&D aim of Seri Industrial S.p.A. in Italy, this collaborative program focuses on the development of lead technologies, amongst other types of batteries. 

A multi-disciplinary project led at Imperial College London looks to the end-of-life stage of lead batteries, focusing on the design of energy-reducing, economically competitive, electro-hydrometallurgical strategies for recycling. One of the biggest advantages of lead batteries is the end-of-life recycling rate of almost 100% in Europe, and Imperial’s work is focusing on new ways to enhance the sustainability of the process. 

Lead battery research is far-reaching in Europe, both in scope and results. But there always remains room for more innovation, so keep an eye out for the release of CBI’s new Request for Proposals that will outline the areas of research we’re looking for to drive our next Technical Program. 

Women in science: driving innovation and fundamental to progress

In the words of the United Nations, both science progress and gender equality are fundamental achievements to reach the SDG Goals as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

For this to become a reality, it is crucial to demonstrate the importance of having more women working in fields of science, and most of all to create conditions that empower and facilitate women to work in a sector traditionally dominated by men.

In 2015, the UN General Assembly declared February 11 as the “International Day of Women and Girls in Science”, as a way of fostering change in this field and turning these below stats around:

UN data from 2021

In this case, and like in any other sector, combining the strengths of all genders in the workplace can only create more space for better ideas, innovation, and progress in science.

Why is it so important to value women in science, but also in our industry in particular?

To better understand these issues and to see how they can be applied in our own industry, CBI spoke to four women who work in the global lead battery industry as researchers: Sibel Eserdağ (R&D Division Manager in Inci GS Yuasa), Sophia Bauknecht (Engineer at Technische Universität Berlin), Begüm Bozkaya (Technical Manager at CBI) and Maria Penafrancia Roma (Technical Collaboration Leader at Advanced Battery Concepts).

The idea was to show their perspectives, as women who work in mostly male environments, but more than that, to demonstrate why they are still working for the industry, why they believe their talent is crucial for it and why do they invite more women to join them in this challenging world.

According to the previously mentioned data, “women represent only 33.3% of all researchers” but considering the technological growth and the urge for progress and innovation in science and research, our group of four women agreed that is absolutely “crucial” to have more female researchers. Not only because of gender equality issues, but also due to the fact that it can bring more diversity of thinking which can only enrich the working groups, their talents and potential to do better things for the industry.

Sophia shared her thought:“that only with a higher number of female researchers it is possible to fully use the existing innovation and talent potential within a research area” and Maria noted that an “increased number of female researchers worldwide means that women with equal or even better capabilities are being given more opportunities now than in the past”. This will hopefully have a significant impact on other areas of the world, she continued: “this will mean that low and middle-income countries will see more women working on scientific and technological issues that can uplift their quality of life. Diversity and statistics will always lead to more revolutionary ideas that can change the world”.

What do women bring to science and to our industry?

According to Begüm, in many research areas “women face new challenges to meet the goals and targets in all levels of science”. Therefore, there’s a common “need” to provide a broader range of understanding and creativity:

“Encouraging the participation of women is essential, as men and women bring different perspectives to research and innovation. The diverse research groups in both academic and industry should combine various skills and abilities”.

But let’s be clear, “women can generate the same ideas and deliver similar results as any other gender in the room”, continues Maria. However, “there is a dearth of examples of this happening in the lead battery industry right now”. As Sibel highlights “like men, women bring their passion, patience, hard work and energy to the science and industry. But the important thing that women bring to science and industry is “diversity”:

“The lead battery industry seems to be a male-dominant industry from the outside however, it is proven by many articles and researches that diversity leads to innovation, so for innovation, industry and science we need more gender-balanced workforce.”

One thing is for sure, there’s a lot of admiration amongst women within the industry as they bring not only the obvious empowerment to each other, but also their perspectives, different backgrounds, skills and visions that add “a considerable value” to the industry, according to Sophia.

So, what advice would you give to a young female researcher starting/considering a career in the lead battery industry now?

We could not end this article without mentioning and promoting other women who are relevant references for our interviewees such as Dr. Kathryn R. Bullock, “whose vision, research and leadership led to revolutionary changes in the lead battery industry. She was a giant among men and the only female recognized by the Gaston Plante Award Committee in its 32 years of existence” (mentioned Maria) and Dr. Julia Kowal, a professor at TU Berlin who is “highly engaged in many committees to represent women in every aspect. She is carrying this additional workload to support other women in their academic career” (stated Sophia).

It's February 2022 when the “International Day of Women and Girls in Science” happens and CBI would like to celebrate every talent who is aiming to be a part of this exciting future for research and innovation, especially in the lead battery industry!

Highly charged: opportunities for lead batteries for EV fast-charging

A 2021 White Paper commissioned by CBI indicates that using lead batteries for high-rate DC to DC electric vehicle charging will be technically and commercially viable. This project has caught the attention of the State of Missouri, Missouri Gas & Electric and the Missouri University of Science & Technology. Their plan is to install several prototype systems in local Missouri gasoline stations. An RFP has been issued to for companies willing to design and build these first prototypes.

Fueling these plans is the need to provide accessible charging for EV buyers. The US auto industry has determined that a “hypothetical barrier” stands in the way of increased EV sales. The industry believes that greater EV adoption depends on an improved charging infrastructure in order to alleviate car-buyers' drive-range anxiety. And unlike the network of “super charging stations that Tesla had the foresight to install all around the world, other EVs are lacking in their ability for fast-charging. A Tesla super charger can take a discharged Tesla to about 80% state-of-charge (SoC) in less than 30 minutes.  This “super charging” ability gives the Tesla driver a secure feeling when embarking on a long trip.  

Other EV drivers are relegated to using lower power charging stations at hotels and parking structures, but these lower power chargers can take upwards of 4 hours to get the vehicle battery to 80% SoC. Not a good situation.

In a recent announcement, California governor Gavin Newsom is not only proposing that every new car sold in California by 2035 be electric or zero emission but is also supporting legislature that new homes be equipped with EV charging capabilities. The article by Plastics Today also quotes a Reuters report that fast chargers are very expensive and typically cost ~$100,000.  Such systems are also expensive to operate due to high cost of electric power and demand charges.  

California has announced that every new car sold in the State by 2035 should be electric or zero emission.

CBI has written about the critical role of advanced lead batteries for the electric vehicle revolution by powering safety features on-board EVs.  The potential for the technology to be the battery powering EV charging stations is another significant opportunity. 

The time is ripe in California, and indeed the rest of the world, to adopt and install High-Rate lead battery-backed DC to DC charging systems as proposed by the CBI White Paper. As countries and their auto industries scramble to expand their BEV charging infrastructures and advance electrification and decarbonization agendas, lead battery industry has a huge opportunity to play a key role in this charging infrastructure expansion.  

The window of opportunity for lead battery manufacturers to form partnerships, design prototypes and submit proposals to be a part of this electrification expansion is open now.  Change is coming and our industry should be part of it!  

By Dr George Brilmyer, Batt-Tek Consulting, LLC and member of CBI's Expert Panel

Interested in more? Check out these other CBI blogs:

Harnessing the sun: lead batteries for EV charging

The shift to a low carbon future is heavily invested in both renewable energy and low-emission vehicles such as EVs. And in an exciting partnership announced by CBI member Advanced Battery Concepts, they’re bringing both solar energy and EV charging together.

Chosen to supply their innovative, bipolar lead batteries for GreenCore’s charging plazas across the US, ABC will manufacture and supply the energy storage systems using their patented GreenSeal® technology for an estimated 10,000 Solar EV Charging Plazas by the end of the decade.

Enabling GreenCore to harness solar energy generated on site, ABC’s lead storage batteries provide faster recharge, higher power and increased cycle life compared to conventional storage batteries. Combined with high recycling rates and domestic manufacturing, the technology is tapping into the greater demand for domestic energy independence in the US.

As the growth of the EV market continues, with global sales increasing by 39% in 2020 alone, the demand for reliable, renewable, and widespread fast-charging infrastructure is booming. 

Read more about the exciting partnership between ABC and GreenCore here. Originally published by Advanced Battery Concepts, LLC. 

Embodying Europe’s drive for innovative technologies

From CBI-funded projects to university collaborations, advanced lead batteries are a technology embodying Europe’s drive for innovative technologies to deliver ambitious decarbonisation and electrification targets.

Creating synergy between academia and industry through battery research has been a cornerstone of CBI’s technical programs. In a project underway at Fraunhofer ISC, they’re working with Ford’s Research and Innovation Center, TU Berlin and Moll Batterien to improve regenerative braking performance in hybrid cars.

This critical market, including micro-hybrids which are predicted to represent over 80% of new vehicles in Europe by 2030, relies on advanced lead batteries to deliver greater fuel efficiency and reduced carbon emissions. Specifically targeting Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA), the research is ensuring the most advanced lead batteries are used in vehicles, to support the transition to a low-carbon future. 

In another project with Fraunhofer ISC partnering with Poland-based Wroclaw University, a research team is using tailor-made carbons and utilizing advanced physical and electrochemical techniques to study key performance indicators for lead battery technology. Specifically for micro-hybrid vehicles, this research is an important step in responding to market demand from Europe’s automotive sector.  

2V, 2.5 Ah ISC laboratory cells for the Fraunhofer and Wroclaw University project (Copyright Fraunhofer ISC)

Transitioning now to the buzz words ‘energy storage’, CBI’s latest technical research program funded a suite of projects dedicated to the driving innovation in advanced lead batteries for this growing market. As the world shifts to cleaner sources of energy and the need for more reliable grids, battery energy storage research is essential. 

In an ongoing project with Spanish research institute INMA and battery manufacturer Exide, high-tech neutron diffraction techniques are being used by scientists to gain a deeper understanding of the charge/discharge processes occurring in a lead battery. In a first-of-its-kind approach used to study the technology, the research will improve energy efficiency and the Partial State-of-Charge (PSoC) cycle life of batteries for energy storage systems (ESS). 

Tapping directly into the new goals set out in CBI’s Technical Roadmap, this energy storage research is paving the way for advanced lead batteries to enhance their performance for renewable and utility energy storage.

A new university research partnership between the University of Warwick and Loughborough University will show how advanced lead batteries can support electricity grid energy storage and important low-carbon systems facilitated by renewable solar and wind energy.

Funded under CBI’s 2021 research program, the university collaboration is developing more advanced levels of modelling and prediction of lead battery behaviour for utility grid storage. The aim is to facilitate better battery management and higher uptake of lead batteries to support the energy grid.

This is just a snapshot of the innovation underway across Europe, all focused on advanced lead batteries. Europe’s climate change goals are driving enhanced research for battery technologies, and CBI with the EU lead battery industry and other university and research institutes partners are striving to ensure lead batteries remain one of the central players in this shift to a low-carbon future. 

Stayed tuned for Part 2!

Lead batteries will help power the future

As the US shifts to greater levels of energy security, the role of batteries becomes ever-more important to underpin this transition. Used in a wide range of applications from vehicles to renewable energy, advanced lead batteries offer an advantage through the high rates of domestic manufacture and recycling. Combined with a big industry push for research and innovation into the technology outlined in CBI’s Technical Roadmap - to deliver enhanced performance across key technical parameters such as cycle life, energy efficiency and dynamic charge acceptance - advanced lead batteries are critical for powering the future. 

CBI member Stryten Energy joins CBI’s guest blog to share insight into the unique blend of extensive domestic manufacturing infrastructure and unparalleled sustainability that advanced lead batteries have to offer.

Lead Batteries Will Help Power the Future

Renewable energy has many benefits, such as energy security through diversification of energy supply and reduced reliance on imported fuel. Energy generated by wind, solar and hydropower doesn’t produce greenhouse gas emissions, helping reduce air pollution. 

As we consider the significant benefits of renewable energy, we also have to consider the current limitations. The sun may shine and the wind may blow today, but the next day may be overcast and calm. Continuous availability is the key, and reliable energy storage with advanced battery technology is the answer.  

Proven History 

Lead batteries have been in use for over 160 years. Their reliability has made them the most commonly used rechargeable battery technology for numerous applications. 

Because of their relatively large power-to-weight ratio, lead batteries are preferred for starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) applications. Advanced lead batteries such as Enhanced Flooded Batteries (EFB) and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) enable start-stop technology in today’s vehicles and provide the additional power required by advanced safety features and modern conveniences.

In electric vehicle (EV) applications, lithium batteries are used as the propulsion source for the vehicle, replacing gasoline. However, almost every auto also carries a lead battery to power critical safety functions such as power steering and braking systems. Components like the lights, entertainment system and heating/cooling system also run on a 12-volt system, powered by lead batteries.

Lead batteries are also widely used for backup power supplies for microgrids, residential solar, telecommunications and utilities, for network operation centers and data centers, and even as backup power on nuclear submarines.   

Domestic Manufacturing 

Compared to newer battery technologies, lead batteries are inexpensive to manufacture. According to the Department of Energy, lead batteries have a lower capital cost of $260 per kilowatt hour (kWh) compared to lithium at $271 per kWh. Lead batteries also require three times less energy to produce. Lithium needs 450 kWh per 1 kWh, while lead is 150 kWh per 1 kWh. In other words, the energy generated to produce a lithium battery likely costs more due to its energy density. 

Another important consideration is sourcing. While the U.S. is one of the leading producers of lead in the world, most of the lead and alloy materials necessary for manufacturing lead batteries come from recycling. Lead batteries manufactured in the U.S. typically contain more than 80 percent recycled material. Because of this domestic sourcing, lead battery manufacturers have a reliable supply chain minimally impacted by foreign trade disruptions. 

Domestic manufacturing related to lead batteries has a significant impact on the economy. The U.S. lead battery industry enables more than 92,000 jobs. The salaries for these manufacturing workers are 28 percent higher than many other private industry sectors. Overall, the lead battery industry contributes $2.4 billion in government revenue, $6 billion in labor income, $10.9 billion in gross domestic product and $26.3 billion in total economic output to the national economy. 

Looking Ahead 

Major battery manufacturers and suppliers collaborate with researchers to reach the full potential of lead batteries and enhance battery performance efficiency. Battery life has increased 30 to 35 percent in the last 20 years. Lead batteries have a lifespan of up to 18 years, and some have demonstrated lives up to 30 years in standby applications. 

A current goal is to reduce the weight of the batteries while increasing energy density. By doing so, lead batteries will become much more competitive with lithium. Research led by The Consortium for Battery Innovation is aimed at increasing the cycle life of lead batteries from 1,000 to 5,000, compared to lithium batteries at around 2,500 to 4,000. 

Safety and sustainability are two important aspects as we consider the future of lead batteries. For the telecommunications and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) markets, the lower shipping costs of lead batteries will be an advantage. Lithium is considered a Class 9 Hazardous Material because it can overheat and ignite under certain conditions. Once ignited, the fire can be difficult to extinguish. For that same reason, lead is also preferable for energy storage in areas where the use of lithium batteries is restricted by fire marshals.  

Lead batteries also have the advantage of a well-established recycling process. The recycling rate for lead batteries in the U.S. is 99 percent. Nearly 100 percent of lead can be recycled and infinitely reused with any loss of future performance capacity. By comparison, lithium batteries have a recycling rate of about 5 percent.    


The transition from fossil fuels to clean energy will take time, much like we have seen with the automotive industry’s move toward electric vehicles. But there is also considerable opportunity. The renewable energy industry is becoming a major employer in the U.S, and the median hourly pay for these jobs is about 25 percent higher than the national average. By reaching a majority renewable energy grid, nearly 1 million direct development, construction, installation, operations, manufacturing, and supply chain jobs will be created.

While some companies are focused solely on newer technologies as a replacement for lead batteries, we believe that a wide variety of battery technologies are necessary to ensure that the power generated by wind, sun and water is readily available. Advanced lead batteries also have a role in the growing demand for energy storage solutions. Lead batteries offer a unique blend of extensive domestic manufacturing infrastructure and unparalleled sustainability.   

By Mike Berger, Director of Engineering, Stryten Energy

Originally published by Stryten Energy

“Research is the key point” says CBI’s new Technical Manager

As part of CBI’s technical team, we’ve recently welcomed Begüm Bozkaya. With a BSc degree in Chemistry from the Middle East Technical University and an MSc degree in Materials Science from the Technical University of Munich, she gained extensive knowledge on the effects of carbon additives on negative plates for lead batteries, after using this as a Ph.D. research topic. 

After working on several industrial projects for the past 6 years, Begüm joined CBI to gain a broader perspective on lead battery research as her role involves directly working with CBI’s global members from different companies and stages of the supply chain.  She will be managing all of CBI’s European Technical projects as well as supporting CBI’s standards program.

According to her, CBI is doing what no one else in the industry is by “combining the knowledge from the industry and research institutes and collecting them in a non-competitive environment”. This means it’s possible to pool knowledge from a range of battery experts in order to advance lead battery technology for all applications, from energy storage systems to automotive.

As part of CBI’s team based in Europe, it is also important to look at the role of EU industry-research-academia partnerships in driving innovation.  “We need to strongly defend the place of lead batteries. This is a well-established technology: we are cost-effective, recyclable, we have innovative research initiatives underway, and we’re committed to contributing to a cleaner future in the energy sector, especially to facilitate decarbonisation and support climate goals.  It is vital that the EU includes all batteries in their future work plans”.

In that sense, the work developed by CBI through its Technical Roadmap has been essential to collect relevant information for lead battery applications and to help educate the audience regarding the future of this technology that has an enormous potential:

“If we can open new research topics and innovative ideas that can cover what we have in the roadmap, I’m sure lead batteries can still be considered a key player in the efforts to decarbonise, and developed further as a result. Research is the key point.” 

Begüm Bozkaya, Technical Manager at CBI

When mentioning the new year and the developments that we can expect from advanced lead batteries, Bozkaya said that bipolar or advanced PbC batteries “can bring new research topics” for the industry and that these are “great candidates for EU initiatives”:

“There’s a bright future for advanced lead batteries and a lot of great research projects being developed as a result of CBI’s work, so I believe that in the near future we will be able to show even more how committed the industry is to Europe’s climate goals and, therefore be more involved with EU initiatives through lead battery research projects”.

For more information on CBI’s innovative technical program, click here.

Ending the year on a high

2021 has been a highly successful year for CBI, with expansion across our research projects, membership, and team. CBI launched a new Technical Roadmap for lead battery innovation, secured substantial government funding for lead battery research and added several new projects to its core research program. There was also a significant increase in activities to improve the awareness of lead battery performance and innovation to stakeholders including end-users. 

This year we welcomed 3 new staff members, strengthening our global team with additions for both Communications and Technical Program. Joana Coimbra, based in Brussels, has been a welcome addition in supporting the communications work underway in Europe. Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager and Begüm Bozkaya, Technical Manager, joined later in the year and are working to support CBI’s extensive research program and drive for government and stakeholder funding.

These important appointments came during a busy time where CBI launched its new Technical Roadmap, dedicated to advanced lead battery innovation and research. 

With the launch of new projects this year focused on energy storage, a significantly growing market for lead batteries and of critical importance on a global stage, CBI’s new Technical Roadmap built on the goals and targets set out during our launch in 2019.

The new Roadmap is extensive and covers every application space for lead batteries and demonstrates the key pathways for innovation and development for the technology to continue solidifying its path to deliver on the world’s electrification and decarbonization goals.

CBI didn’t just grow in team members this year. We welcomed 9 new members including Hyundai’s North American Technical Center, Stryten Manufacturing, Inbatec GmbH, Sorfin Yoshimura and ENTEK International.

Through the work of CBI in demonstrating the critical role of advanced lead batteries and the vast innovation potential for the technology, these are key drivers for our membership increase across the globe and we’re proud to work with our diverse members and partners to demonstrate the benefits of working with CBI.

With the end of the year came the return of some in-person events, with the team visiting LyonBrussels, San Diego and Phoenix for conferences and expos, and our North American Technical Workshop held in Raleigh, North Carolina 

But one of the biggest events back on the schedule for next year, and co-organised by CBI with ILA, will be ELBC, the global lead battery innovation conference. Taking place next year on 6-9 September, this event will be the premier technical conference dedicated to lead battery innovation, bringing together 1000+ attendees from across the world.

With a world-class technical program, featuring experts and topics relevant to every part of the lead battery application space and value chain, look out for the launch of our Call for Papers, expo reservations and sponsorship opportunities early next year.

We see a strong future for advanced lead batteries. The work of our members is critical in this and we’re proud to support their work through our technical and communications initiatives. Next year will no doubt be even busier than this year, so keep an eye out for our new research Request for Proposals, updated lead battery market data and energy storage case studies, just to name a few. 

Newest member of CBI: ENTEK International

CBI is pleased to announce the latest member to join the research consortium, ENTEK International.

For more than 30 years, ENTEK has been an innovator and leading world-wide designer and producer of highly reliable microporous polyethylene battery separators for lead batteries.

CBI is excited to work together with ENTEK and our global membership to accelerate the future of global energy storage.

For more information, read ENTEK's press release.

CBI at the ESACon21 to share industry’s drive towards innovation

The ESA Annual Energy Storage Conference and Expo (ESACon21) took place last week from December 1 – 3 in Phoenix, Arizona with manufacturers, storage developers, investors, policymakers and many others from the energy sector gathered to discuss the latest trends and developments within this industry.

With the current US climate goals centered on reducing 50% of carbon emissions by 2030, the focus relies on the economy’s decarbonisation and sustainability creating opportunities for innovation and sustainable growth.

This was a great occasion for CBI to share its work towards innovation for advanced lead batteries, but also to discuss the future role of this technology in energy storage as the demand for batteries will only increase, according to the latest data from the US Department of Energy. This growth will offer significant opportunities for advanced lead batteries to provide battery energy storage on a mass-market scale and to help achieve climate goals.

Advanced lead batteries are already a critical technology used in a range of energy storage applications. From supporting smart grids and remote area power supplies to ESS for residential, commercial, and industrial applications, the high safety and reliability profile of the technology means there’s also great potential for transmission and distribution reserves and investment deferral with smaller systems.

CBI at the ESACon21

CBI’s case studies, available on our interactive map, demonstrate this technology’s value and effectiveness across the globe. For instance, in Nigeria, local communities now have access to electricity thanks to solar microgrid installations powered by advanced lead batteries. In New York City a building’s power infrastructure is more reliable and better prepared for extreme weather events while reducing its carbon footprint, after being provided with a solar + storage solution using this technology.  In Pennsylvania, lead batteries are being used for scale services to balance and smooth USA’s largest energy grid.

By sharing a range of these case studies and the Technical Roadmap, CBI was able to share with ESACon21 attendees the fantastic work and effort made by the global industry towards innovation, as well as the significant benefits of this technology for energy storage systems.

Watch our event video:

Project update: scientists collaborate to study advanced batteries using neutron diffraction


Beamline meets battery: scientists collaborate to study advanced batteries using neutron diffraction


Energy storage systems (ESS)


24 months


The project aims to gain a deeper understanding of the charge/discharge processes occurring in a lead battery using neutron-scattering experiments, to directly enhance the performance of ESS lead batteries.

This is a new approach which has never been used before to study lead batteries.

If successful, it will be able to be extended to explore other parts and processes of lead batteries.


Exide Technologies, INMA.

Project update:

INMA have designed the first prototypes of a new lead battery, specifically intended for neutron experiments.

A range of characterization work and feasibility studies have been undertaken to optimize the prototype of neutron-scattering work.

The next step of the project is to conduct extensive neutron diffraction work to probe the fundamentals of lead batteries.

Using neutron diffraction and tomography, the growth and dissolution mechanisms of different active material species will be studied and evaluated under charge regimes relevant for ESS. 

The new understanding is expected to improve the energy efficiency and the Partial State-of-Charge (PSoC) cycle life of batteries for ESS:

- This encompasses renewable energy applications such as wind and solar ESS, which typically require excellent PSoC performance.

The research underway ties directly into the new research goals of CBI’s Technical Roadmap, where improving cycle life and energy efficiency have been identified as a key priority research goals for ESS lead batteries.

View the project update video

View the project press release

Released 8 March 2021

CBI nominated for Excellence Awards

Power Technology, a leading energy publication, includes CBI on shortlist for Sector Excellence Awards – Batteries & Storage

For the first time, CBI has been nominated for a 2021 Excellence Award, announced by a leading global energy publication, Power Technology

Included in the Batteries & Storage shortlist as part of the Sector Excellence category, CBI’s work in battery research and innovation has placed us alongside other battery and storage leaders such as Tesla, Hitachi and Engie.  

With our recently launched Technical Roadmap, CBI is a driving force for global innovation for advanced lead batteries, a critical technology underpinning the global shift to greater levels of decarbonization and electrification. 

Recognizing the soaring demand for battery energy storage worldwide – from use in clean energy projects to e-mobility – CBI is paving the way for the next generation of advanced lead batteries through our scientific research program.

Find out more about our work here, and about this year’s Power Technology Excellence Awards.

Key enablers of Europe’s climate-neutral goals: energy storage and batteries

The 4th edition of EASE’s Energy Storage Global Conference took place last week (19 – 21 October) in Brussels and online. With the support of the European Commission, the event provided three days of talks and discussions around the future of energy storage, its current market, policy frameworks and the latest trends in technology. 

For the opening session, Maroš Šefčovič, Vice-President of the European Commission for Interinstitutional Relations and Foresight, spoke about the key role of energy storage and batteries to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, while highlighting its increasing demand to answer the new targets for renewable energy and carbon emission standards.

Šefčovič mentioned the importance of innovation and competition to keep investing in current technologies, improving performance and using advanced materials: “Europe must invest, not only in improving existing solutions but also in developing next generation breakthrough technologies”.

EASE’s President, David Post, also predicted battery storage of 7.7TWh by 2030 and highlighted the importance of supporting all technologies.

The last day of the conference was focused on discovering the latest cutting-edge energy storage technologies and CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, Dr Carl Telford, spoke in a session dedicated to “Electrochemical and Electrical Energy Storage”, presenting the work that CBI has been developing through research and innovation for advanced lead batteries.

CBI at the ESGC 2021 with Doriana Forleo from EASE

CBI's 2021 Technical Roadmap was presented to illustrate how constant performance improvement and technological advances can create limitless opportunities for the lead battery industry to help achieve global electrification and decarbonization targets.

While navigating through Europe’s funding landscape and showcasing European energy storage case studies using lead batteries (with Exide Group and Systems Sunlight SA), Dr Telford explained the challenges that the industry might face when applying through a “very complex” funding system, but also concluded with an optimistic note on the amount of opportunities that exist for energy storage and batteries in terms of public funding, proving that these are indeed necessary for the future:

“When considering the EU’s high-level goals, the speed of action required to mitigate the climate crisis, it is crucial that all energy storage solutions are not only available for deployment, but also encouraged”.

By Joana Coimbra,
Communications Officer, CBI

CBI-sponsored workshop targeting safety-relevant automotive batteries

During a two-day workshop sponsored by CBI, a group of experts from car manufacturers, sensor and software suppliers and battery companies met to discuss future safety-relevant applications of automotive batteries. Whenever safe operation of a vehicle relies on 12V power supply, for example in steering, braking, driver-assistance or autonomous-driving functions, battery diagnostics is essential for Functional Safety (FuSa). The workshop focused on physical verification methods for Safety State-of-Function (SSOF) battery diagnostics.

Following a series of virtual meetings in the last several months, the in-person meeting held in Paris on 5-7 October began by identifying several key focus areas:

Over the past six months, members of the SSOF group have shared their perspective on the industry allowing for a common perspective on the current state-of-the-art for 12V auxiliary batteries not only in conventional vehicles,  but also in battery-electric vehicles. 

The use of lead batteries in electric vehicles is a key application with significant future opportunities, as identified by the recently launched CBI Technical Roadmap.

A major step in this collaborative effort, the meeting in Paris represented a milestone in recovery from the restrictions imposed by Covid-19. For all of the participants, it was the first time they had met in person outside their own organizations since lockdowns were imposed, and the first time many had met each other in person. 

Participants during one of the sessions during the CBI-sponsored SSOF workshop in Paris

The meeting was chaired by Dr Eckhard Karden of Ford and attended by 18 experts from car manufacturers, sensor and software suppliers to the car manufacturers, and battery companies, with others joining virtually. So far, subject matter experts from 4 car manufacturers, 4 electronics suppliers, and 6 battery companies have been actively contributing to the group.

The purpose of this working group is to facilitate pre-competitive collaboration to harmonize the diagnostics for 12 V lead battery systems. This work is relevant for both for 12V main batteries which provide safety critical functions for vehicles and for auxiliary batteries (also known as low-voltage EV batteries) which provide secure power supplies for all types of vehicles including hybrid and pure electric vehicles.

The in-person meeting helped accelerate the continued harmonization effort, allowing for productive planning for key topics. The discussions covered the methods of diagnosis and the relevant fault conditions that need to be considered in order to ensure the battery is always able to meet the required duty cycle in a critical incident. 

Furthermore, it was considered that an industry-wide database should be created with measured raw data from batteries in different conditions and with different ages for use in SSOF verification.

The workshop was successful in bringing together an important group to ensure batteries and the associated diagnostics are correctly specified for these automotive applications.

Interested in finding out more about CBI’s work in the automotive sector?

By Dr Matt Raiford

CBI insights on low-voltage EV batteries featured on World Economic Forum

Read our guest blog featured on the World Economic Forum (WEF), covering the essential role of lead batteries for the safety of the world's electric vehicles (EVs).

CBI's Chairman, Dr Christian Rosenkranz from Clarios, shared his thoughts on low-voltage EV batteries with a special focus on Europe, as a critical technology for Europe's Green Deal ambitions.

Read the blog here.

CBI takes part in #EUSEW: a new era for the lead battery is pushing for decarbonisation and circular economy

On October 4, CBI brought together a digital panel to discuss the critical role of batteries for Europe’s sustainable transition. As part of Europe's Sustainable Energy Week, supported by the EU Commission, the virtual event provided an open discussion around the importance of a level playing field amongst technologies in Europe and featured European case studies where advanced lead batteries are providing reliable, recyclable and safe energy storage.

CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, Dr Carl Telford, opened the event by showcasing our recently launched Technical Roadmap, to illustrate that “sustainable economies need batteries”. If policy makers want to solve the problems of climate change and pollution, while moving from a linear to a circular economy, then industries will “need a proper deployment of battery technologies and energy storage”, and this is where Europe’s lead battery industry plays a key role.

From Exide Europe, Holger Fricke, Director Basic Research R&D EMEA, presented the benefits of Exide’s “on-site solar installation in Portugal”, that combines lead battery energy storage with renewable energy. Carbon emissions were reduced by more than 20% and energy management was improved, turning this case study into a real-world example of decarbonisation, with the installation facilities now being used as a showcase.

Peter Stevenson, Senior Technical Co-ordinator at GS Yuasa, joined the event to discuss the importance of hybrid solutions for Europe’s sustainable energy future. Using an example of the “world’s first container of dual chemistry energy storage system”, he highlighted the “complementarity and flexibility” between lead and lithium battery technologies.

While moderating the panel, Patrick Clerens, Secretary-General at EASE, reflected on the need of a level playing field between different technologies and stated that “no one can pick a technology winner”. Europe needs more batteries and new battery technologies, including hybrid ones, and through this it is possible to have “the best of both worlds”.

CBI's virtual event for #EUSEW 2021

There are already some EU industrial and research initiatives going on to demonstrate how batteries can work together to reach the energy demands, such as the European Battery Alliance, Batteries Europe, Batteries 2030+ or IPCEI's. However, it remains important to share the message that a wide array of energy storage and battery technologies are needed to address the flexibility requirements and support the energy transition and the EU green goals, including lead batteries.

By the end of the discussion, it was clear that other industries can learn from the lead battery experience since it’s a well-established industry that represents a major example of circularity in Europe. Through research and innovation, enhancing the performance of lead-based technologies will be essential for Europe’s sustainable energy future and create further opportunities for synergies with other chemistries.  

Watch the video of the event:

Download the presentations from the event below:

  1. Supporting Europe's Sustainable Energy Future: Advanced Lead Batteries
  2. Renewable Projects to Frequency Regulation: Introducing Advanced Lead Battery Energy Storage
  3. The Importance of a Level Playing Field for Batteries in Europe
  4. Case Study: Renewable Energy Storage for Manufacturing
  5. Case Study: Hybrid Battery Systems

Lead batteries are a part of the future and this is why

For the first time at the Batteries Event, held in September 2021 and organized by Avicenne Energy, there was a dedicated session for lead batteries. This is another major step for the industry demonstrating how this technology continues to evolve and is key to the current discussions within the energy sector.

Co-organized by CBI and EUROBAT, the session ‘Driving sustainable growth through LEAD BATTERY innovation’ brought up significant topics such as decarbonisation, circular economy and the work of the lead industry to upgrade and innovate for current applications such as clean energy and e-mobility.

Opening the session was EUROBAT’s Director Communications & Stewardship, Gert Meylemans, who noted that both lead and lithium will still be the dominant chemistries in the next decade.

Focusing on the numbers, lead-based technology will remain almost exclusively the preferred technology for 12V automotive applications, while continuing to be the dominant technology for UPS applications (Uninterruptible Power Supply) providing 90% of global demand and increasing by 5.5 GWh by 2030.

Our very own Research and Innovation Manager Dr Carl Telford introduced our recently launched Technical Roadmap to the audience and explored the funding opportunities for the industry within the EU.

From left to right: Gert MEYLEMANS (EUROBAT), Dr Bernhard RIEGEL (HOPPECKE) & Dr Carl TELFORD (CBI)

CBI’s new Technical Roadmap is an expansive document setting out key research priorities for the industry for all applications using lead batteries. With a special section dedicated to energy storage systems solutions where lead batteries play a major role – from utility and renewable energy storage projects to hybrid solutionsthe opportunities to enhance lead batteries through research and innovation have huge potential.

Dr Christian Rosenkranz from Clarios (also CBI’s Chairman) explored both CBI and EUROBAT Roadmaps, highlighting the “strong innovation potential of all battery technologies” and their contribution to the EU Green Deal, Fit-for-55 and net-zero pollution goals, as they:

To conclude this fantastic session, Dr Bernhard Riegel from HOPPECKE explored the innovation potential of electrochemical storage systems for industrial applications, an “ongoing process” for established technologies. High recyclability, low investment cost and low safety requirements were pointed out as the main advantages of the lead-based technology for the upcoming years.

The Batteries Event 2021 has ended but our work is now more exciting than ever with all the future opportunities for the technology and the innovation to come, driven by CBI’s Technical Roadmap.

The Green and Digital Transition: how CBI is helping lead batteries to stand out

On September 15, the EU Commission’s President made a State of the Union speech highly focused on the future: from investing in 5G, to improving research and innovation and making sure that Europe will reach the EU Green Deal goals.  Ursula Von der Leyen pointed out some of the key aspects that rule our work at CBI and our dialogue with our members and companies from the industry.

Through NextGenerationEU, the Commission is committed to “invest in 5G and digital skills” as the demand for faster and more efficient networks increases, along with the explosion of AI, EVs and many other real-time autonomous applications.

“To ensure uninterrupted access to these services, telecoms and data centre back-up demand will increase exponentially” and this is where lead batteries have an important role. As the main option for the “uninterruptible power supply (UPS) energy storage needed for data centres and network rooms” representing 90% of global demand, lead batteries are a critical player for Europe’s digital transition.

But let’s not forget about the role of this technology for hospital back-up applications, incredibly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic, by “ensuring uninterrupted power supplies”. In Italy and in the UK, FIAMM’s provided safe and reliable lead batteries to support hospital power. 

Another wish from Von der Leyen is to achieve “European tech sovereignty”, which also includes the ability to supply the entire value chain in many highly demanded technologies, such as EVs, hybrid vehicles or renewable energy storage systems. CBI recognizes that all batteries are needed to give Europe the faculty to attain green goals and, as we invest in research and innovation for advanced lead batteries and work with world-class institutes, we are here to say that this technology is a critical player in the green transition by offering “high-performance, reliability, safety and a sustainability profile including almost 100% recycling at end-of-life in Europe”.

We are demonstrating that lead batteries can make EVs safer, that our members are involved in clean energy storage projects contributing to decarbonization and that this technology is a great team player when collaborating with other batteries and using the best of both chemistries for a more efficient outcome.

As the urge for a fair green transition and a cleaner energy society increases, CBI believes that the actions to reach 2030 goals must be taken now and that the potential and opportunities for advanced lead batteries are limitless:

"To make sure that the clean energy transition is achieved, Europe should use as many lead batteries as possible, and increase investment in research and innovation for this technology".

CBI is proudly recognized as the world’s only advanced battery research group supporting EU-based companies and we believe that through collaborative research for innovation we will help the EU to achieve the ambitious, but not impossible, goals.

CBI’s « rail road » to keep supporting research and innovation for lead batteries

This year is set to be the Year of Rail in Europe and the EU is also currently celebrating its Mobility Week.

In fact, there are many reasons to keep investing and improving this sustainable, innovative and fast transport mode. Not only does it add value from an economic perspective by contributing to the EU Green goals for 2050 while creating jobs and growth (note that: only in 2015, the rail sector employed directly 577,000 people according to an EU Commission's report ), but it also has a social impact by connecting people from all member states through seamless rail networks and reducing distance when it comes to commuting.

Therefore, thinking about the future of Europe’s Rail industry also leads to the future of its sustainability in our society - possible to develop through research and innovation.

In a recent article by Dr. Bernhard Riegel, Director of Research Development at battery systems provider for train operating companies, HOPPECKE Batterien GmbH & Co. KG, he notes that lead batteries are still the most widely used technology in Central Europe for supplying power to the onboard electrical systems of trains.

With a staggering 416 billion passenger-kilometres of rail travel across Europe in 2019, the role of lead batteries is critical for train mobility.

In the article featured on Charge the Future, Dr. Riegel discusses the unique blend of benefits offering by lead batteries for rail applications. At moderate temperatures they combine low maintenance requirements, reliability and low lifecycle costs. In many European trains, lead batteries are used to protect onboard power supply systems. Whether they provide emergency power supply for passenger cars, start the diesel engine for diesel locomotives or are used for direct drive, lead batteries play an essential role for rail.

CBI’s  « rail road »  to keep supporting research and innovation for lead batteries in order to significantly contribute to the EU green goals and future climate objectives of our planet, is linked to the knowledge that lead batteries have a tremendous potential to innovate and be used in many different applications in a highly sustainable, economic and safer way.

Dr. Riegel, also highlighted the growth potential of lead batteries in this and other sectors, from providing uninterrupted power to hospitals and back-up to telecoms and stabilise grids, to backing up renewable energy supplies and supporting hybrid and electric vehicles.

As we celebrate the EU’s mobility week, we recognize the many ways lead batteries are powering low-emission mobility and contribute to Europe’s low carbon future.

Lead batteries at the forefront of EU’s energy transition strategy

Wim De Vos, CEO of Campine, joins CBI's guest blog to share his thoughts about the importance of lead batteries and research to reach the EU's green goals.

We are currently in times where many raw materials are scarce and logistics from other parts of the globe are expensive. The only battery technology material that gives Europe security is lead.

When discussing Europe’s energy transition goals - involving the electrification of vehicles and generating more energy from renewable solar and wind power - we cannot avoid talking about batteries. Demand for all types of batteries during the next decades is growing rapidly as we are using more and more electric devices, including electric vehicles (EVs), and increasing the level of energy storage for utilities and renewable projects.

Europe will need metals to produce all these different batteries, however, many of them are becoming scarce and more expensive to import, with the cost of container shipping from Asia to Europe increasing by 4x compared to 2020.

In the end, we will have to make sure that we have enough materials to fuel both battery production, and our path towards a greener society. So where do lead batteries fit in to providing the solution?

Lead remains the main battery technology for automotive applications, such as start-stop and micro-hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries are the primary batteries for EVs, increasing the demand for the metals needed to produce these, but lead continues to play a critical role as low-voltage EV batteries. When it comes to choosing the best technology to achieve the EU’s decarbonisation goals, there is a clear role for all battery technologies to play their part based on their strengths, such as weight, cost, and the performance of the battery.

Nevertheless, if we focus on sustainability and circular economy goals, lead is the only battery technology that is truly “circular”. A new lead battery in Europe is made using 80% recycled content, with nearly 100% of lead batteries collected and recycled at end-of-life. This circularity is far ahead of other battery technologies.

To really consider sustainability, we need to look at the complete supply chain.

CBI's work is helping the industry to meet the demands of the EU’s green transition.

The importance of research and innovation

To make sure that the clean energy transition is achieved, Europe should use as many lead batteries as possible, and increase investment in research and innovation for this technology.

The lead battery has been the mainstream technology for many years and for the past two decades a lot of things have changed for the industry, especially with the rise of alternative chemistries like lithium.

CBI has been an important driver for industry research and innovation, to continue the development and advancement of lead battery technology to meet the demands of the EU’s green transition and need for batteries, underpinned by a mature and circular industrial base.

Therefore, it’s extremely vital to invest money, time, people and “brains” into the work of CBI to develop advanced lead batteries that can compete in the evolving market, by being cost-effective, more efficient, more sustainable and, especially by contributing to the circular model.

By Wim De Vos,
CEO at Campine

Lead battery research underway in national labs: an innovation wave

Part 2

National labs remain a critical player through which the U.S. lead battery industry is leading the way in battery innovation. Through the first-of-its-kind Lead Battery Research Science Program (LBSRP) at ANL, this program has been a key catalyst for improving understanding of lead battery technology. 

For over five years, a complement of scientists from the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division (CSE), Materials Science Division (MSD) and Advanced Photo Source (APS) have been actively studying lead battery fundamental processes governing DCA, lead sulfate mechanistics, and failure modes under representative duty cycles.

Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory equipment at Argonne
Argonne scientists and researchers use the bright x-ray beams at the laboratory's Advanced Photon Source to investigate the further potential of lead batteries (Photo credit - Argonne National Laboratory)

The research program, which involves 90% of the North American lead battery industry, has capitalized on the scientific excellence of both the industry and the national lab structure, demonstrating a great model of how productive these collaborations can be and the opportunities to engage with government labs to deliver next-generation batteries.

Under the umbrella of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), several different testing and application-specific efforts are underway at different national laboratories. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) there are twin testing efforts underway: one focused on the safety and reliability of batteries in energy storage systems (ESS) applications and another testing innovative new battery type performance. 

In both projects, advanced lead batteries using bipolar configurations, novel electrodes and other innovations are currently being studied. 

In addition, a PNNL team is currently studying a new electrolyte system in conjunction with lead-based electrodes, probing how alternative electrolyte chemistries can maximize the inherent electrochemistry in acidic lead systems.

In Golden, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting novel testing and evaluation for five different lead battery systems in behind-the-meter storage (BTMS) for EV fast-charging.

The spectrum of advanced lead batteries tested in this study are serving as a benchmark group with the ongoing data collection paving the way for demonstrating how these systems would be used in the future.

Specifically geared towards EV fast-charging demand reduction, this unique application is presenting exciting future opportunities for lead batteries to play a pivotal role in the transition to e-mobility.

The role of universities and national labs are critical for the cutting-edge research underway in advanced lead batteries. These partnerships open up future market opportunities for the technology to be a central player in the move to a low carbon future with higher levels of electrification. 

By Dr Matt Raiford

An innovation wave: lead battery research driven by universities and national labs

Part 1

There is an innovation wave underway in lead battery technology. In universities and national laboratories across the U.S., research projects are opening up new pathways for understanding and enhancing the performance of lead batteries.

As the current administration moves steadily towards a low-carbon future, through ambitious programs accelerating new energy storage technology development, and demonstrated through the pledge to cut carbon emissions in half by 2030, lead batteries have a vital role to play.

In a CBI project with UCLAin-situ TEM of lead battery electrodes is depicting expansion and growth processes of the active material via real-time imaging. This kind of scientific insight is shedding new light into failure modes of lead batteries, working towards providing a deeper understanding for how to optimize the battery for grid energy storage and low-emission vehicles. 

UCLA images of Pb dendrite growth and collapse were acquired in real time with a transmission electron microscope. Certain nucleation sites consistently nucleate larger dendrites.

In Minnesota’s University of St. Thomas, pioneering research is underway into microgrids utilizing lead batteries. A critical application in the shift to reliable and renewable energy, microgrids are booming in demand across the U.S. and further afield.

With studies taking place in the dedicated St. Thomas Center for Microgrid Research, the microgrid features a 125 kW/396 kWh lead battery system, a 48 kW solar array and the capability to emulate different electrical sources or loads using state-of-the-art electrical power research equipment. With its connection to the grid, the facility is helping to both develop technology and train new engineers to shape the future of energy.

Battery improvement from a systems level is being studied by the CALCE Battery Team at the University of Maryland, focusing on lead batteries utilizing a complement of modelling techniques and battery management research. The aim is to improve the lifetime of lead batteries and other forms of electrochemical storage, a key technical parameter for utility, renewable energy storage and automotive applications.

A cross-disciplinary team at Columbia University are studying smart charging algorithms and machine learning methodologies in lead battery packs. This kind of research is invaluable, and the improvements are being applied directly through a CBI research collaboration with Electric Applications Incorporated (EAI) using novel charge control methods to maximize lead battery string life.

Over the last three decades, CBI’s research program has focused on many different components in lead battery electrodes, including expanders, which are vital for performance. In the newest project to be launched between U.S.-based research teams and the lead battery industry is a collaborative effort with the University of Toledo and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 

Organized by the American Battery Research Group in an effort geared towards maximizing energy throughput and charge acceptance in lead battery electrodes, it will involve designing, producing and testing new organic expander molecules.

Universities are just one of the scientific sectors to be focusing their research efforts of advancing lead batteries for the evolving technical demand of booming industries such as energy storage and low-emission mobility.

Our next blog in the innovation series will feature the pioneering scientific research underway in collaboration with U.S. national laboratories. 

Read Part 2
By Dr Matt Raiford

The rebirth of the oldest secondary power source: lead-air battery

When the French inventor Gaston Plante discovered in 1869 that two lead plates immersed in sulfuric acid solution can reversibly store electricity, he probably did not imagine that he had given the world one of the most widely used and stable battery systems. 

Today, 160 years later, the lead battery dominates more than 60% of the market for secondary power sources, with a market worth more than $30 billion annually. 

Globally, there is a huge infrastructure and economy that supports the production and development of lead batteries including thousands of jobs and factories around the world.

What are the reasons for the success of the lead battery? First of all, it is safe, the terminal voltage is relatively high and it can deliver high power at discharge high currents. Another advantage is the low cost of production and the low total cost of ownership and operation. Last but not least, the lead battery is the most recycled consumer product globally. More than 97% of the components of the used lead batteries are reused, making this electrochemical system an integral part of the circular economy. 

But innovation is necessary all technologies. And for lead batteries, an area of development is to tackle the low specific energy of the system. 

Our research team at the Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IEES-BAS) is exploring how to improve the energy and environmental performance of lead batteries. By enhancing these aspects, the lead battery will continue to be a core technology for the decarbonization aims of governments across the globe.

Batteries cycling equipment in the IEES-BAS lab

In a recently published paper by our research team at IEES-BAS, we look at the possibility to design a lead-air electrochemical system. The purpose of the study was to prove that the positive electrode in a conventional lead battery can be replaced with a gas diffusion electrode (GDE). 

The main advantages of this approach are that the GDE increases the specific energy of the system by up to 52% while reducing the amount of lead used, thus making the battery lighter and more cost-effective. 

Another advantage which makes the adoption of the new system easier is that the negative electrode is the same as the one used in conventional lead batteries. This means that the main current generation reactions remain the same. 

Research and innovation are integral to the lead battery industry, and our work on this system will continue in order to improve the stability and reversibility of the GDE. We believe that this new reincarnation of the lead battery will open new possibilities for lead batteries to remain an important part of the energy storage landscape as well as to remain a leader in the circular economy.

Making the EU Green Deal a reality: Fit for 55

The much-anticipated “Fit for 55” package released by the European Commission is the latest in a set of ambitious targets designed to ensure Europe achieves carbon-neutrality by 2050.

In a move designed to accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the package aims for a 55% reduction by 2030 through interconnected policies including those targeting energy and transport.

That’s where batteries come in. This is a unique opportunity for batteries to play a significant role in one of the most ambitious decarbonisation frameworks in the world. 

The shift to focusing on more renewable energy generation and the grid resiliency and flexibility required as a result presents a chance for advanced lead batteries to directly support these energy needs.

To tackle climate change, energy storage is needed yesterday, not just by 2030. With existing supply chain and mature manufacturing capability, lead batteries can be deployed in large numbers, fast and sustainably.  

Research underway led by CBI in Europe is already driving innovation in the technology directly focused on this area: plugging-in renewables and facilitating grid storage. With some of the leading universities in Europe and with partnerships in the US, this research will feed in to the next-generation advanced lead batteries needed to support Europe’s climate-neutral future.

CBI's European research projects are supporting the shift to a low-carbon future.

With the ever-increasing move to hybrids and electric vehicles, advanced lead batteries continue to provide an essential on-board element for Europe’s e-mobility fleet. They’re also live and online across Europe providing reliable, sustainable energy for installations spanning community microgridssolar farms for manufacturing plants, and utility grid frequency regulation

A message that needs to resound in Europe is that all batteries will be critical for this shift. With different advantages for different applications, battery technologies are vast and diverse. And advanced lead batteries are one of the critical players offering high-performance, reliability, safety and a sustainability profile including almost 100% recycling at end-of-life in Europe.

Combining these attributes with the dedication to innovation from the European, and indeed the global lead battery industry, is setting this technology apart. 

From enhancing cycle life, an essential parameter for renewable and utility energy storage, to improving dynamic charge acceptance, a vital part of what makes hybrid and electric vehicles cleaner, is where the industry is focusing their efforts for lead battery improvements.

The lead battery will be a significant player in enabling the EU Green Deal by making climate and circularity targets a reality, supported by research, innovation and collaboration across Europe to ensure the future has all the batteries it needs to succeed in the green transition. 

By Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager, CBI

Answering the call for next-generation energy storage: Lead Battery Grand Challenge

With the energy storage landscape at a turning point in the U.S., the lead battery industry is stepping up to the challenge to meet the call by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate the development and utilization of next-generation energy storage technologies.

This effort, part of a series of programs focused on energy storage innovation for utility services, is offering a unique opportunity for the lead battery industry to double down on research efforts to continue enhancing technology performance to support domestic energy storage demand.

The industry is already a step ahead with its domestic manufacturing and recycling capability – a $26.3 billion industry with battery end-of-life recycling rates of 99% - but innovation remains a driving force for lead batteries as future energy demand continues to soar.

The effort announced by the DOE represents a renewed focus on energy storage research and development and the Lead Battery Grand Challenge innovation roadmap, developed by CBI and Battery Council International (BCI), is answering the call. 

Offering the opportunity for the lead battery industry to collaborate with the scientific excellence of the DOE, through national labs partnerships and research collaborations, our industry aims to deliver innovative, next-generation lead batteries for key energy storage markets.

From residential and commercial demand reduction to load response for solar generation, the opportunities are vast for lead batteries to provide a unique blend of benefits – safety, recyclability, reliability and sustainability – whilst delving into the untapped potential of the technology through specific research areas.

Increasing total energy throughput related to cycle life is a key area of improvement identified for lead batteries, building on existing efforts underway by CBI to enhance battery performance, such as the existing Argonne National Laboratory project

Alongside other innovative developments such as new battery architectures used in next-generation bipolar lead batteries, the research areas identified in the Lead Battery Grand Challenge are poising the industry for collaborative projects with DOE stakeholders.

As the future of energy calls for high-performing, sustainable technologies, lead batteries are set to play to a critical role in delivering a technology vital to achieving the technoeconomic and decarbonization goals for the U.S. energy grid.

Download the Lead Battery Grand Challenge innovation roadmap

By Dr Matt Raiford

The first choice for power backup: lead batteries

As the most widely used battery technology globally, lead batteries are used extensively in a number of applications, including data centers. CBI has invited FIAMM to join our guest blog to share their insight into the critical role of lead batteries for the growing data center market – with demand for the technology predicted to grow by 5 GWh by 2030 - and their key advantages in terms of safety, reliability, cost and recyclability.

Lead batteries are the most widely used of all the battery chemistry families today. Worldwide there are around $35 billion produced every year. They are used extensively from engine starting in cars and trucks, powering industrial equipment, and for providing critical backup power in many applications – including data centers.

A debate is taking place in the market about the role of the latest battery chemistry, lithium, and how it compares to lead. The argument is valid and one that is important for the customer to understand. Each system has its merits.

At FIAMM, an international producer of batteries for industrial and automotive, and part of the global Japanese Showa Denko Group, we have chosen to maintain our focus on lead.

Like most major international battery producers, we continually research new technologies in our effort to provide value for our customers. We evaluated Lithium as a battery chemistry and concluded that we want to keep lead as our core chemistry. This is why.

A modern lead battery is the culmination of years of experience. In the data center world, FIAMM makes batteries that provide the vital link to protect power continuity. We have supplied thousands of applications, supplying big-name customers across the world.

Every data center power requirement is unique. Our experience indicates that valve regulated, maintenance free lead batteries will continue to be the major choice for years to come.

A modern UPS system in a data center is complex. There are many factors to be considered, such as its location in the world, power quality and the unique nature of the application itself. FIAMM approaches each project as unique. We examine all the factors that the customer requests and advise on best practices, such as layout and how to improve an environment that maximizes the life of the system. There are no standard off-the-shelf solutions.

"Every data center power requirement is unique. Our experience indicates that valve regulated, maintenance free lead batteries will continue to be the major choice for years to come."

Data centers are energy-hungry and, without power, they fail. The quality of their service is critical. A major push in the data center industry, at the moment, is to ensure that data centers use ‘greener’ power. The industry is setting an impressive record and some of the major operators already operate on 100 percent renewable energy.

All FIAMM batteries are recyclable. Lead, which is to say that the core of the battery can be reclaimed, reprocessed, and recycled. This fits well with the growing concern to protect and re-use precious resources. In Europe, in particular, there is a major push towards products that fit a circular economy. Lead batteries meet this requirement well as they can be 99 percent recycled. All lead batteries have a residual end-of-life value…usually between ten and 15 percent of the initial cost.

Lead batteries are also safe and offer good life. Like all products, they must be used within the guidelines provided by producers. FIAMM batteries operate in a temperature range of 25-30 Celsius.

In the end, the deciding factor often comes down to money. The focus is on operating costs and payback. FIAMM batteries fit well on these criteria. Lead batteries cost considerably less than a lithium solution. An equivalent lithium solution can cost 300 percent more than lead. This represents a significant premium. Furthermore, there is still no effective solution for recycling lithium batteries, and disposal can be costly.

Nicola Corradin, Product and Strategic Marketing Manager at FIAMM Energy Technology (Reserve Power Solutions Division)

Article originally posted on Data Center Dynamics.

Unique renewable energy centre powered by dual-chemistry battery storage

Pairing renewable energy with a dual-chemistry battery energy storage system is the latest innovative project underway by GS Yuasa. Based at their Ebbw Vale factory in Wales, the installation featuring nearly 3,000 solar panels and a combined lead and lithium battery system is forming part of Wales' first dual-chemistry energy centre. Part funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the unique integrated energy centre is showcasing the benefits of using complementary battery technologies to drive Europe's green energy ambitions.

The installation of nearly 3,000 solar panels, forming part of Wales’ first dual-chemistry energy centre has been successfully completed at GS Yuasa’s Ebbw Vale factory.

The battery manufacturer announced their partnership with the innovative renewable energy company, Infinite, late last year. Both Infinite and GS Yuasa, along with their partners Albion Capital, are set to launch their first Energy Centre at the Rassau industrial estate in South Wales.

The combination of wind turbines, solar photovoltaics and battery storage will provide reliable, cost efficient and greener power directly to the customer.

Work at the site is moving on apace with the first phase of the unique integrated energy centre – the installation of a 1MWh rooftop solar system at GS Yuasa’s factory, already completed. Approval has also been granted for the building of a wind turbine which will supply electricity directly to the site. The Energy Centre will be linked to an energy storage scheme with its ADEPT battery container bringing together the use of GS Yuasa’s lead acid and lithium batteries, thus offering optimum efficiency and flexibility when managing power across a micro-grid.

The installation of a 1MWh rooftop solar system at GS Yuasa’s factory features nearly 3,000 solar panels, supported by a lead and lithium battery energy storage system.

Andrew Crossman, Director, Infinite says: “The GSCS Energy Centre represents a step-change in the de-centralised distribution of low carbon and renewable energy. The Rassau scheme aims to share the benefits of multi technology generation within the immediate community, providing discounted renewable power and reducing the CO2 emissions in the area.”

Shaun Gardner, Managing Director, GS Yuasa Manufacturing UK Ltd added: “The project brings a number of benefits to our Ebbw Vale factory and the wider Rassau industrial estate. The unique combination of our lithium and lead-acid batteries, the latter of which are produced on site in South Wales, allows for the storage of greener energy, generated by either solar or wind, to be used at a later date.”

The centre is part of the Generation Storage Consumption Supply project (GSCS) and is one of up to seven local energy centre schemes in South and West Wales to be grant funded by The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Match funding of £5.5m has been provided by Infinite’s funding partner, Albion Community Power. The total CAPEX for the schemes is £14.4m with £8.9m provided by the ERDF.

Welsh Government Minister for Climate Change, Julie James said: “Climate Change is at the heart of our decision making and we are committed to accelerating the transition to a low carbon energy system in Wales. The GSCS Energy Centre, alongside the other EU funded local energy schemes, will play an important role in driving action towards our ambition for a more sustainable future for Wales, by providing the benefits of cost-effective, more reliable green energy to local businesses and communities across South and West Wales.”

Marco Yu, Investment Director, Albion Community Power, says: “Albion has over 20 years’ experience funding sustainable energy projects across the UK. We backed the Infinite team in the early stages of its growth and are thrilled to be part of its latest pioneering, multi-technology projects that are leading the way in helping local businesses to decarbonise and reduce energy cost while alleviating the electricity load of the electricity grid network.”

Battery innovation: it’s in the name

Battery innovation is what drives us at CBI. And it’s what unites our members based across the globe. 

The last decade has seen a boom in innovation in advanced lead batteries, using novel design and new architectures to enhance the performance of traditional lead batteries for a range of applications.

Progressing from benchtop prototypes to mature products, these novel advanced lead batteries are poised for the mass market.

The unique electrodes offered by New Zealand’s ArcActive and the different bipolar technologies offered by US-based Advanced Battery Concepts (ABC) and Gridtential are just some of the examples of recent lead battery innovation.

For these developments to be stemming from our member companies is encouraging for CBI and helps us to showcase our core messages about the innovation underway in lead batteries, directly feeding into the needs of society for high-performing, reliable and sustainable lead batteries.

Beginning as a garage start-up, ABC is based in Clare, Michigan and quickly developed into a state-of-the-art manufacturing and development center. ABC's GreenSeal­® bipolar technology, which delivers increased performance, more efficient charging, longer life and reduced weight, is now licensed by seven battery manufacturing companies located across the world in the US, Europe, India and China. 

The technology touts the highest energy density (65 Wh per kg) on the market and GreenSeal® batteries also provide high power and charge acceptance. As ABC’s Chief Operating Officer, Mike Everett, said at the European Lead Battery Conference in 2020, they plan to add a medium volume production line, able to build 250,000 GreenSeal batteries annually to their facility. ABC has also been awarded a contract with the Defense Logistics Agency to develop advanced lead batteries for US military vehicles. 

ABC plans to add a medium volume production line to their facility, able to build 250,000 GreenSeal batteries

Founded in 2007, ArcActive is based in Christchurch, New Zealand and recently won the BCI Innovation Award for their AACarbon™ technology. Their novel carbon felt electrodes have demonstrated unparalleled recharge capability with some of the highest dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) values recorded for any advanced lead battery.  

At the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference in 2020 and during BCI’s 2020 Virtual Convention, ArcActive’s presentations showed DCA values of +1.4 A/Ah at the 12 V level and close to 9 A/Ah at the 48 V level. 

ArcActive’s AACarbon™ Electrodes

DCA is one of the critical work areas for CBI’s research to ensure lead batteries continue to innovate in their area to meet evolving technical demand in the increasingly hybridised automotive market. 

ArcActive’s DCA performance is quickly approaching CBI’s research goal of 2.0 A/Ah and they have developed a suite of manufacturing equipment to translate their electrode technology directly into AGM and EFB products.

Since 2010, Gridtential has made major strides in developing their flagship Silicon Joule® technology. The innovative silicon wafer substrate combined with the bipolar technology has helped to enhance lead batteries across almost every performance metric.

The Silicon Joule technology provides improvements in energy density, power density, recharge efficiency, and cycle life, especially at deep depth of discharge (DOD). 

Gridtential’s Silicon Joule™ technology

The silicon wafer electrodes utilize common semiconductor high-throughput manufacturing processes to generate high quality battery current collectors. Silicon Joule batteries can be manufactured leveraging existing production equipment, so they're ready today to meet the worldwide demand for safe and sustainable energy storage. 

With 12 battery partners, Gridtential have just announced a series of groundbreaking AGM reference batteries produced on East Penn Manufacturing’s prototype line, beginning with a single-block 24V lead battery optimized for deep-cycle applications.

Combined with a CBI research project looking to develop plug-and-play systems for the solar residential market, Gridtential is a leading player for lead battery innovation.

This is just a snapshot of the innovation underway in the global lead battery industry. Combining the expertise of industry partners with universities and research institutes is the basis for CBI’s research program to deliver the next generation of advanced lead batteries. 

Find out how we’re propelling innovation with a range of ground-breaking research projects here.

Charged up: battery innovation for a greener Europe

Each year that EU Green Week is celebrated, Europe gets closer to its ambitious goal of being the first climate-neutral continent.

As a key action of the EU Green Deal, this strive towards climate neutrality by 2050 will be underpinned by many technologies and the transition of industries to low carbon practices.

And this is where advanced lead batteries come in. As a battery technology engaged in delivering clean energy projects and enabling the electric vehicle revolution, Europe’s lead battery value chain is also supported by an industry which is a model for the circular economy.

This combination of sustainability principles, where the industry recycles almost 100% of its batteries in Europe to produce new batteries with 80% recycled material, sets advanced lead batteries apart.

As we enter EU Green Week, we hear from Exide in Portugal who have slashed their carbon emissions at their manufacturing and recycling plants by an average of 20% through the innovative use of solar energy and advanced lead batteries.

The photovoltaic plant at Exide's Castanheira facility is paired with advanced lead battery energy storage.

We’ll be taking a look at the range of European energy storage projects, from small-scale community microgrids bringing 24-hour power for the first time, to large-scale frequency regulation installations delivering reliable and flexible power to regional electricity grids. All powered by advanced lead batteries.

The clean energy initiatives ushered in by the EU Green Deal will need all energy storage technologies to step up to the plate. Batteries will be a central part of Europe’s transition to a low-carbon future as more and more societies, industries and consumers turn to batteries for affordable, clean and renewable energy.

And the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) has recognised this need and the continued demand for innovation in batteries to meet the evolving technical requirements of storage systems, and to explore the potential for other applications.

That’s why a large portion of our technical program is dedicated to energy storage. With European projects bringing together universities and battery manufacturers to tackle the highest priority developments for the technology, CBI is driving innovation in lead batteries to ensure performance enhancements are continually increasing. All whilst maintaining the circular economy successes of the technology.

The other central pillar upon which the EU is aiming for a climate-neutral 2050 is low-emission mobility. The role of the established lead battery which ushered in emission-reducing start-stop vehicles continues to be important for the increasing electrification of vehicles. As a critical on-board component of virtually all EVs, powering essential safety features, lead batteries are enabling the shift to an e-mobility future. 

This EU Green Week, find out more about the interesting and innovative ways advanced lead batteries are powering the transition to a greener future for Europe.

How lead batteries make EVs safer

Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios, sets out how lead batteries supporting safety systems in electric vehicles are integral to low-carbon mobility.

Europe is at a critical crossroads in its ambitious goals of achieving a climate-neutral EU by 2050. With initiatives driven through the EU Green Deal to decarbonize Europe, one of the central ways in which this will be achieved is through low-emission mobility.

Electric vehicles are at the forefront of discussions around Europe’s low-emission vehicle fleet and the future of the automotive industry. 

Batteries are critical for electric vehicles, but not just the ones you hear most often about: lithium-ion batteries. The other critical on-board component for electric vehicles, and indeed the range of lower emission vehicles such hybrid vehicles, are 12V lead auxiliary batteries.

These auxiliary batteries play an essential function for hybrid and electric vehicles and lead batteries offer a number of key strengths in this application in comparison to other technologies.

The 12V auxiliary lead battery provides back up power for safety relevant features such as power steering and brake boosting. But they’re also essential for a vehicle’s comfort features such as radio and sound systems.

In the event of the failure of the high-voltage propulsion lithium-ion battery, the auxiliary lead battery takes over and powers the safety features of the vehicle to enable the car to safety pull over.

As a technology, lead batteries are highly safe and reliable, and it is vital that the safest technology is used in this application. 

Current European investments in batteries has focused on the development of new battery technologies that can provide increasing system voltage levels of up to 800V. But this ignores the established 12V lead battery which is backed by an industry with 90 GWh installed production capacity located in Europe.

This mature industry, which collects lead batteries at end-of-life at rates of almost 100% in Europe, is one of the leading examples of circular economy in Europe

From a production and supply standpoint, lead batteries are domestically produced in Europe for all of the target markets. This independence from global supply structures exists due to the established and well-maintained recycling industry, where almost 80% of material in a new lead battery comes from recycling. 

With recent lifecycle analysis of the environmental impact of a vehicle over its lifetime, lead batteries as a technology were shown to have a lower impact compared to other technologies.

Backed by a strong reliability and affordability profile, lead batteries also have wide operational temperature windows compared to li-ion batteries, which intrinsically enhances the operational robustness of the entire system. 

The safety record of lead batteries sets it apart from other chemistries and makes it an invaluable technology for Europe’s future low-emission mobility sector. 

Through a long history of co-operation with the automotive industry, both the performance and the geometrical dimensions of the 12V lead battery are designed according to well established industry standards. This makes the automotive integration easy for the layout of new xEV platforms. 

We are in the age of the battery, and recognition should be given to the essential role different chemistries will play for Europe’s green ambitions. Recognizing and utilizing the strengths of 12V lead batteries, based on their performance, sustainability and safety profiles, will ensure Europe is a leader in the shift to an electric vehicle future.   

By Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios

The global shift to clean energy: pairing renewables with batteries

Celebrating more than 50 years since its creation, Earth Day 2021 is being recognised with events held by 1 billion people in 193 countries. The message of environmental protection has a strong resonance in today’s world where decarbonization and electrification are high on societal agendas.

One of the most significant ways in which a focus on restoring our Earth has been driving action across the global is the shift to clean energy. Through the use of renewables, through sustainable and green technologies, through energy storage

The rocketing growth of energy storage across different regions and in different applications, from small-scale rural electrification projects to large-scale installations supporting power grids, is underpinning the global shift to a clean energy future.

As one of the energy storage technologies supporting this shift, lead batteries are used in diverse projects around the world to deliver reliable, affordable and sustainable energy. 

From the world’s highest solar farm in Tibet, to a rooftop solar project in New York, to rural electrification in Sierra Leone, lead batteries are at the centre of the transition to a clean energy future for different communities across the globe.

Browse our interactive map for some highlights of lead batteries in action and check out our case studies page for a deep dive into the role of advanced battery storage in delivering a low carbon future.

Project update: Industry partnership with UCLA in nanoscale study on advanced batteries


Visualizing the dynamics of carbon-enhanced negative electrodes


Automotive sector and utility grid energy storage


18 months


The objective of the project is to determine the fundamental mechanisms by which carbon additives improve lead battery performance using innovative techniques not used before in lead battery research:



Initial findings

View the project press release

Released 27 July 2020

View the project update video

Combining strengths: lead anodes for lithium-ion batteries

Dual-chemistry projects are becoming increasingly common as demand for batteries is booming.

The world’s low-emission vehicle fleet is one of the prime examples of where different battery chemistries complement each other: virtually every electric vehicle has an auxiliary lead battery used for powering emergency functions if the primary lithium-ion battery fails.

We’re also witnessing the increasing use of dual-chemistry energy storage projects which combine the strengths different battery chemistry. From projects providing frequency regulation to stabilise electrical grids to electric vehicle charging projects, growing demand for battery energy storage means every chemistry has a significant role to play.

And now, in a pioneering research project underway at Argonne National Laboratory, the use of lead is being trialled for a new electrode design for the lithium-ion battery.

As a low-cost and plentiful metal, infinitely recyclable without losing beneficial properties, lead is offering exciting implications for designing low-cost, high-performance, sustainable lithium-ion batteries for the hybrid and all-electric vehicle market.

Image shows a lithium-ion battery, a lead-based core-shell particle developed for the anode, the element lead in the periodic table, and a lead battery for an automobile. (Image by Scapiens Inc., Argonne National Laboratory and Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.)

The research team have developed a simple, low-cost method for fabricating the lead anode used, which is made of lead nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix and enclosed by a think lead oxide shell. 

Laboratory tests have already demonstrated the new lead-based anode can attain twice the energy storage capacity of current graphite anodes, with stable performance during cycling possible. 

This exciting development to provide higher-performing lithium-ion traction batteries for low-emission vehicles by using lead would be underpinned by a successful home-grown lead battery value chain already based in the US. 

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is driving forward innovation in advanced lead batteries to meet future technical demands for clean mobility and clean energy storage.

Read about the full research underway in a collaboration between Argonne, Northwestern University, Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) here.


'Getting the lead in' - Read Argonne's press release on the innovative project here.

Recognizing the sustainability of lead batteries on Global Recycling Day

18 March 2021 marks Global Recycling Day and we're proud to work in an industry which is a gold standard for circular economy principles, with almost 100% of lead batteries recycled at end-of-life.

Check out our short video and visit our sustainability page for more insights into how advanced lead batteries are ticking the boxes for a sustainable battery technology.

Position now closed

CBI Communications Officer Position

Location Brussels, Belgium preferred 

Contract Initial contract 18 months

Hours 35 (full time)

Job Summary 

The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI), a rapidly growing global battery research consortium, is seeking candidates for an 18-month position as CBI Communications Officer to be based in Brussels, Belgium. 

Candidates must be educated to a relevant degree level (e.g. marketing, public relations, journalism or other degree requiring strong writing skills). With at least three years’ experience, preferably operating in Brussels, candidates will demonstrate their ability work with a complex and diverse portfolio of communications activities. 

Candidates must demonstrate the ability to summarize technical and scientific information and communicate material effectively to a range of different audiences, both within the Consortium’s membership and externally, and across different channels. A good understanding and experience of working with European institutions will be a significant advantage.  

Required Qualifications and Professional Capability

Preferred Qualifications and Skills

Job Responsibilities

This role will involve regular European travel.


The salary and benefits package will be commensurate with education and experience.  

About CBI

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is a global innovation hub which supports cutting-edge pre-competitive research and promotion of innovation in lead battery technology. The consortium includes more than 100 member companies and organizations worldwide, consisting of lead producers, battery manufacturers, battery users, materials suppliers and research institutions.

The candidate would be joining a vibrant and dedicated team, with staff in Brussels, North Carolina and London. More information can be found here:


Interested candidates should submit a résumé and cover letter to Dr Alistair  Davidson, director of CBI, ( by Friday 12th March 2021.

We are committed to equal opportunities and creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. We welcome applicants regardless of ethnic origin, national origin, gender, race, color, religious beliefs, disability, sexual orientation or age.

Celebrating Battery Day during the age of the battery

The word battery is buzzword today. The diverse landscape of batteries means they will be a significant player in the global shift to a low carbon future. 

Through use in low emission vehicles, as storage for clean energy and as backup for critical infrastructure such as mobile networks, batteries are an essential part of the every day.

And they’re always adapting and innovating to meet the demands of the world. Advanced lead batteries are undergoing a huge transformation driven by changing markets and evolving technical demand.

With pioneering research conducted under the Consortium for Battery Innovation and in partnership with governments, universities and industry around the world, the untapped potential of the lead battery is well on the way to be being opened up through innovation. 

On 2021’s Battery Day, there’s a lot to be excited about for the lead battery industry. Building on our core aim of undertaking advanced battery research, CBI will shortly be announcing our new technical program. This year’s technical projects are focused on delivering battery research that will be critical to the technology’s bright future as an energy storage solution.

Lead batteries are already used across the globe for diverse energy storage applications. Storing power harnessed from the sun in remote communities to stabilizing the electrical grid for entire regions, lead batteries are facilitating reliable, sustainable energy generation.

But they have more to give. Energy storage demands are always shifting and always growing. So the low carbon world of the future needs batteries and lots of them.

With targeted performance enhancements in cycle life, battery lifetime, energy density and operation at different duty cycles, CBI is driving innovation in the technology to ensure they are a central part in supplying the 20,000 MWh increase in battery energy storage demand by 2025

Our work doesn’t stop at research. We are communicating the critical role that our industry plays in providing high-performing, reliable, sustainable batteries for energy storage. See below for some featured highlights from around the world and click here for the technical case studies:

Watch our Battery Day video

Project update: Carbon for a low-carbon future – research into advanced battery additives


Investigation into the Combined Influence of Carbon Black and Organic Expander to Improve Micro-Hybrid Service of Enhanced Flooded Batteries


Micro-hybrid vehicles


18 months


The project aims to improve the following parameters through the optimization of additive ratios:

1 - Increase the dynamic charge acceptance to higher than 0.40A/Ah using DCA run-in testing.

2 - High-temperature durability -providing up to 19 units on J2801 testing and other test sequences.

3 - Energy throughput of lead batteries, by demonstrating a much higher cycle life in DOD 17.5% testing when compared to a typical lead battery control. 


East Penn Manufacturing, Borregaard USA, Hammond and Cabot.

Initial findings

Optimization of additive ratios have been shown to improve DCA by 40% compared to control.

Expander and conductive additives are a well-established pathway for improving performance of lead battery negative electrodes, however how they interact and work with each other is ill-defined. 

The project aims to optimize and establish functional relationships between these additives to enhance lead battery performance for DCA, high-temperature durability and energy throughput.

The high amount of detail on structure and methods will make the additive mixes and resulting test batteries replicable in any member research facility.

Initial analysis of the amount of each additive mix component has shown correlations to formation behavior. 

A representative sample of 12 V lead batteries to test and study these relationships at product level has been produced.

View the project press release

Released 16 December 2020

View the project update video

All battery technologies need nurturing for Europe’s clean energy future

Europe has made a significant leap forward in battery technology through a commitment to battery research and investment, solidifying the role of batteries for a low carbon future. 

The EU can be the centre for the most advanced batteries and the most advanced recycling and re-use of battery technologies if all battery technologies are nurtured to foster innovation.

These were the resounding messages from an EU Industry Days event co-organised by EASE and Batteries Europe on 9 February called Developing the Batteries of the Future: Actions to Take Today.

CBI echoes these sentiments. As Claudia Gamon, MEP and member of Renew Europe said: “Our battery industry can be a pioneer in this world”, and we would wholeheartedly agree. 

With leading capability in manufacturing, recycling and research, Europe’s advanced lead battery industry is ticking the boxes for the high-performing, sustainable, safe and cost-effective batteries needed for Europe’s electrification and decarbonisation goals. 

The panel, made up of figures involved across Europe’s battery industry from the Commission to manufacturers, acknowledged the lead battery’s golden example of circular economy in action, and a blueprint for other technologies to follow. 

Europe is a big focus for the work of CBI. Despite its long history, I shared with event attendees that there is a surprising amount not yet known about lead battery technology, and CBI’s research program is uncovering the untapped potential within.

This year will see the launch of a suite of technical research projects under the banner of energy storage launched through our technical program. Working with European research institutes and battery manufacturers, the synergies fostered through the work of the Consortium are ensuring advanced lead batteries continue to innovate to meet future demand.

But we need the support of Europe’s officials to ensure that all technologies are nurtured in decision-making for investment and research. 

A key discussion during the EASE event was around safety. The unrivalled safety record of lead means it is an essential technology helping the transition to clean energy and clean mobility. 

When thinking of energy storage, we tend to think only of uses such as utility grid-scale storage and frequency regulation, or community-based microgrids utilizing renewable energy.

But, as Edel Sheridan from Batteries Europe ETIP noted, fast-charging of electric vehicles is a very important area of research for low carbon aims. And lead batteries are meeting this need for EV energy storage through promising projects both in Europe and the United States.  

Europe is well on the way to becoming the first carbon-neutral continent, and with different technologies competing and providing different services, Europe’s diverse battery landscape should continue to be supported to ensure the goals for 2050 are reached. 

By Dr Alistair Davidson

Position now closed

CBI Technical Manager Position

Location Brussels, Belgium preferred 

Contract Initial contract 18 months

Hours 35 (full time)

Job Summary 

The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI), a rapidly growing global battery research consortium, is seeking candidates for an 18-month position as CBI Technical Manager, preferably based in Brussels, Belgium. 

The successful candidate will have excellent scientific knowledge, ideally including battery technologies, in addition to strong communications and interpersonal skills. The candidate is expected to efficiently manage a diverse portfolio of technical activities working independently. 

Required Qualifications

Preferred Qualifications

Job Responsibilities

This role will involve regular European travel.


The salary and benefits package will be commensurate with education and experience.  

About CBI

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is a global innovation hub which supports cutting-edge pre-competitive research and promotion of innovation in lead battery technology. The consortium includes more than 100 member companies and organizations worldwide, consisting of lead producers, battery manufacturers, battery users, materials suppliers and research institutions.

The candidate would be joining a vibrant and dedicated team, with staff in Brussels, North Carolina and London. More information can be found here:


Interested candidates should submit a résumé and cover letter to Dr Alistair Davidson, Director of CBI ( by Friday 5th March 2021. 

We are committed to equal opportunities and creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. We welcome applicants regardless of ethnic origin, national origin, gender, race, color, religious beliefs, disability, sexual orientation or age.

Developing a new eGAS system with Ford and measX

The global automotive sector relies on lead batteries. From starting the engine in conventional vehicles, enabling low-emission start-stop technology and powering key functions in micro-hybrids, to being used as auxiliary batteries for electric vehicles, lead batteries are present in virtually every vehicle.

At the Ford Research and Innovation Center in Aachen, Germany, collaborative research is underway to investigate gassing and water loss in lead batteries and how it interacts with Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA) of batteries. DCA is the relevant battery property to enable the capturing of instantaneous energy such as through regenerative braking and is a key technical parameter for micro and mild-hybrids. Crucial for low-emission vehicles, CBI has set it as one of the highest priority research goals for the industry. 

Attaining this target is essential for maximizing the performance of advanced lead batteries in the ever-increasing number of hybrid vehicles. The global micro-hybrid market alone is increasing rapidly, with Europe leading the way with 82% of car sales predicted to be micro-hybrids by 2030.

The project explores when and how fast gassing and water loss can occur, and any impact it has on the aging of batteries in the vehicle. With the support of CBI, an innovative portable eGAS device has been developed in collaboration with measX and Ford that allows the monitoring of gas flow in the battery, in-situ and in real time. 

The portable eGAS device developed in collaboration with measX and Ford allows monitoring of gas flow in the battery in real time

One of the key findings of the research established that standard laboratory tests do not accurately represent the performance of lead batteries in field conditions with regards to water consumption, and therefore the device opens new pathways for monitoring battery performance.

Battery producers and car manufacturers can now better understand the condition of batteries in their vehicles using the portable eGAS device, as opposed to the conventional methods of weighing batteries every few months to determine gassing and water loss. This information will be vital for understanding and improving the DCA of lead batteries.

This ground-breaking project has delivered insights into automotive lead batteries never before seen and is vital to ensuring the continued performance improvements for the technology for start-stop and micro-hybrid applications. 

As the world’s battery research hub dedicated to advanced lead batteries, innovation in the technology is driving CBI’s research program which is bringing together industry and science to boost the role of lead batteries in supporting the transition to a clean mobility future.  

Exciting opportunities for advanced lead batteries presented by the Energy Storage Grand Challenge

The Energy Storage Grand Challenge Market Report for 2020 has been released by the U.S. Department of Energy which provides an in-depth market analysis of various energy storage technologies, including advanced lead batteries. The Energy Storage Grand Challenge (ESGC) is an exciting opportunity for the U.S. industry involved in energy storage, designed to accelerate the development, commercialization, and utilization of next-generation energy storage technologies and sustain American global leadership in energy storage with the ultimate aim of developing and domestically manufacturing energy storage technologies that can meet all U.S. market demands by 2030.

The ESGC Roadmap has several clear goals, both technical and non-technical, with the overarching aim of supporting energy storage under the banner “Innovate Here, Make Here, Deploy Everywhere”. The lead battery industry is in a strong position in the U.S. to achieve this. The industry has an annual output of $26.3 billion and manufactures batteries across the country. With a 99% recycling rate, lead battery recycling is conducted nationwide, and the overall lead battery industry creates 25,000 direct jobs in 38 states

Lead batteries as a technology are uniquely positioned in all three of these strategic goals of innovate here, make here, deploy everywhere. The specific techno-economic goal outlined in the ESGC roadmap for ESS; 0.05 $/kWh levelized cost of storage for stationary applications, requires a two-fold performance increase for lead batteries – overall service life (total energy throughput) and energy density. Lead battery technology can meet this goal with the support of the DOE, with several pathways available to tap into the unexploited potential of lead batteries.

CBI is currently engaged in five research projects in the US dedicated to opening these new pathways for enhancing lead battery performance for energy storage and other applications.

2017 witnessed the beginning of rapid growth in the use of lead batteries for stationary energy storage, with a market report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance detailing nearly 1,000 MWh of storage across various applications including commercial and industrial end-users, renewables integration, microgrid and distribution services.

Global cumulative lead stationary storage by application (Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, “Storage Data Hub – Storage Assets,” Bloomberg NEF, New York, 2020, Available:

Our industry is leading the way in lead battery innovation for the energy storage sector to boost performance enhancements, with key areas of advancement including: 

All battery technologies will be essential for the transition to a low carbon future, both domestically in the US and globally, and the pioneering research conducted by CBI in collaboration with scientists, manufacturers, materials suppliers and end-users will ensure advanced lead batteries play a vital role.

Analysts predict strong market growth for lead batteries, underpinning global shift to low-carbon future

Lead batteries will be the dominant rechargeable battery technology for the next 20 years. This was one of the key insights delivered by Christophe Pillot, market analyst from Avicenne Energy in a special lead battery market webinar hosted by the Consortium for Battery Innovation.

The technology is used in a diversity of applications, from well-known automotive uses supporting clean mobility in start-stop and micro-hybrid vehicles, a market predicted to represent over 60% of global vehicle sales by 2030, to the growing utility and renewable energy storage markets which are ushering in a global clean energy transition. From use in back-up power for critical services such as hospitals, telecommunications and data centers, to ensuring the warehouses of the world run smoothly with lead battery powered forklifts, market growth across the board for lead batteries is strong out to 2030.

This presents exciting opportunities for the lead battery industry involved in pre-competitive scientific research which is opening up new pathways for enhancing lead battery performance. Key priority goals include improving battery cycle life to ensure high-performing technical ability to provide power for energy storage, and dynamic charge acceptance for low-emission vehicles.

For further insights into lead battery markets including motive power, automotive, telecommunications backup and UPS, check out CBI’s market data page

Project update: Developing intelligent battery management system for lead batteries in wind and solar applications


Grid energy storage performance improvement using optimized electronic control


The project aims to improve the cycle life of lead batteries (in line with CBI’s KPIs as listed in the Technical Roadmap) for utility and renewable energy storage applications through the use of tools such as controlled overcharging and through the development of novel battery management systems.


Electric Applications Incorporated (EAI)

Initial findings

The project aims to increase operational life by developing novel charging algorithms applicable to different types of lead batteries. The first phase of work has focused on adapting a controlled overcharge approach to several types of lead batteries acquired from commercial sources. These batteries have been combined into representative strings, mimicking the conformations present in large energy storage system (ESS) products with testing currently underway.

View the project press release

Released 4 May 2020

View the project update video

New battery performance monitoring and management startup awarded £170K from Innovate UK to help further advance their cutting-edge technology

CBI has invited Manchester-based start-up to join our guest blog to share their story regarding a £170K award from UK government agency Innovate UK to further advance their cutting-edge battery monitoring and management technology in relation to industrial lead batteries, a vital technology utilized across the globe for back-up and utility and renewable energy storage., a startup organisation based in Manchester, United Kingdom, has been awarded a grant from Innovate UK Sustainable Innovation Fund to help further advance their innovative battery monitoring and management technology. Innovate UK is the government’s agency for innovation providing funding for pioneering research and development in the United Kingdom. IoT data gateway

The technology developed by is applied to industrial lead batteries to provide early detection of potential battery issues through online data analytics, expert insight, machine learning and advanced algorithms. The sophisticated IoT technology enables intervention to prevent premature battery failure, which results in increased battery performance and a reduction in the lifetime cost of ownership, two key objectives detailed in CBI’s Technical Roadmap.

Lead batteries play a crucial role for the industrial market, providing over 90% of global demand for batteries in this sector. David Smith, the CEO and Founder of said: “Premature battery failure is a common problem faced by installers worldwide, mostly due to the incorrect maintenance. has found a quick and affordable solution by using sophisticated monitoring technology to ensure that any issues can be flagged in real time and solved efficiently, saving users both time and money in replacement.” 

Improving efficiency and lifetime of batteries are two key technical parameters considered by end-users installing batteries for back-up, utility and renewable energy installations. The recent grant from Innovate UK will enable to expedite the development process and bring forward the launch of a viable product that provides automated remote monitoring of industrial battery systems used for back-up power of critical infrastructure, particularly for solar systems in remote areas of Africa where there is little or no access to the grid. 

As the world transitions to a low carbon future, demand for renewable energy storage continues to soar, and the role of batteries is essential in meeting this demand. Lead batteries as a technology which safe, reliable, sustainable and cost-effective will continue meeting this growth and will continue to innovate to ensure performance enhancements are achieved. Intelligent battery monitoring and management systems are a significant pathway in which these enhancements in performance can be achieved. ensures an affordable solution for users globally to increase the efficiency of their battery fleets and improve access to energy. 

Installation of IoT monitors

Co-Founder & CPO Duncan Jones remarks: “We believe this development will have a significant impact on both the future of industrial battery management in the UK and the uptake of renewable power globally, particularly in developing economies.”

Successful feasibility studies have been conducted at both a leading university in Manchester and on renewable power systems in Lagos, Nigeria. The findings on the Battery Monitoring System (EBMS) surpassed expectations, flagging issues with battery health early, which could be solved in real-time, with one project preventing an entire fleet failure when using the EBMS. 

The studies conducted have demonstrated that the technology can be applied in remote areas in Nigeria where access to the grid is often unstable, as well as allow for insight into issues with data retrieval where mobile networks are weak.

Looking ahead to 2021

With 2020 drawing to a close, CBI takes a look back at the year that was and ahead to 2021. With the difficulties faced by the COVID-19 pandemic, this year turned out a lot differently for CBI and its membership than expected.

As the world adapted to a new normal and businesses reopened throughout the year, CBI in collaboration with its global membership and partner organisations, launched eight high-impact research projects which are critical to meeting CBI targets for lead battery enhancements as set out in our Technical Roadmap.

From a European project with Ford and leading universities to a first-time partnership with UCLA in California, this year’s technical program has featured a diverse range of research topics and organizations from the entire battery value chain. They all work towards the common goal of delivering vital insights into improving lead battery performance in fundamental ways such as DCA and cycle life and ensuring the KPIs set by CBI are met. 

CBI's latest video from our Research and Innovation Series features a European automotive lead battery project in collaboration with Ford Research and Innovation Center, Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin), MOLL Batterien and Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC with its R&D Center Electromobility FZEB.

The focus on lead battery energy storage took a new turn this year with CBI’s 2020 Request for Proposals, highlighting this area as one of keen interest for the industry involved in research and innovation. We’re excited to launch our new technical program early next year to ensure lead batteries remain a crucial provider of energy storage worldwide. This also tied in with the launch of the Energy Storage Grand Challenge in the US, organized by the Department of Energy (DoE), where CBI is working with the US battery industry and associations to ensure lead batteries continue to be recognized as a vital technology to achieve a clean energy future.

Across the globe, demand for utility and renewable energy storage is booming and batteries play a principal role in delivering that demand. CBI Battery Match was launched in August to put energy storage end-users such as utility companies and systems specifiers directly in touch with the best lead battery option for their system. This robust, technical tool is available on CBI’s website to showcase the role of lead batteries in this sector and highlight their competitiveness with regards to reliability, safety, economics and sustainability.

CBI Battery Match is matching the energy storage sector with the best lead battery for their system

Sharing messages of innovation in lead batteries is crucial to communicating the benefits of the technology and strengthening its perception as a future energy storage solution, vital for global electrification and decarbonisation targets. Digital content has been even more essential during 2020 and we’ve successfully launched a number of videos and blogs covering research and innovation by our members, plus a new educational Battery 101 series featuring all topics lead batteries. 

Our Battery 101 series features all the science behind how a lead battery works plus covering some of the common terms when discussing lead batteries such as DCA

2020 was the year of virtual events and CBI organized, attended and exhibited at a number of highly successful meetings ranging from the Energy Storage Association’s annual conference where we launched CBI Battery Match with a Special Learning Lab, to the highly anticipated 17ELBC, co-organized by CBI with the International Lead Association. ELBC was extremely well-attended and provided the lead battery industry with the latest scientific, technical and market updates combined with insight into how CBI’s pioneering research is changing the shape of modern lead batteries

We also held a number of CBI Technical Workshops throughout the year and hosted two interactive DCA & Heat Workshops bringing together industry, researchers and end-users in the automotive sector.

2021 will be a busy year for CBI as we launch a new suite of research projects focusing on energy storage systems. This will be accompanied by an updated Technical Roadmap to reflect the changing landscape for lead batteries and the evolving performance targets for the technology. 

As lead batteries continue to innovate and advance to a higher plane of performance for different applications, the industry will continue its work in communicating the benefits of the technology. CBI is supporting the work of our members and partner associations across the globe in sharing the innovation story of lead batteries and ensuring that our research is a cornerstone for communicating the essential role they will play in the global transition to a low carbon future.

By Dr Alistair Davidson

Cross-industry collaboration in DCA & Heat Workshop delivering vital insights into enhancing automotive lead batteries

Over the past five years, the DCA & Heat workshops co-organized by CBI and CENELEC and supported by Dr Eckhard Karden based in the Ford Research and Innovation Center in Aachen, have focused on the pressing issues for 12 V automotive lead batteries. The key overall objective of these meetings, which bring together the entire automotive lead battery value chain, is to develop test methods that adequately reflect the Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA) improvements seen in lead batteries. 

The latest virtual edition of the DCA & Heat workshop, held on 17-19 November, covered many topics related to achieving this objective in a collaborative meeting with automotive OEMs, lead battery manufacturers, researchers, scientists and engineers active in the automotive lead battery field.

Global battery experts joined the latest DCA & Heat Workshop to discuss the development of test methods that adequately reflect DCA improvements in automotive lead batteries

With over 100 attendees from across the globe, plenary presentations and interactive breakout sessions focused on six topics:

New micro-hybrid performance testing and nKLT

New revisions to micro-hybrid performance testing by CENELEC and a new key life test (nKLT) have been developed to better evaluate automotive lead battery performance. Representatives from Clarios, PSA Group, and Exide Technologies lead discussions on the revisions and demonstrated how current lead batteries are meeting these more stringent requirements. In-depth discussion in this breakout session not only focused on performance, but also the standards methodology and how the CENELEC group developed these changes.

Functional safety

The increasing reliance of vehicles on batteries for safety during both typical use and autonomous driving and other complicated actions has resulted in a rapid evolution in functional safety approaches for lead batteries in vehicles. A special topic covering the basics of functional safety, how lead batteries offer many advantages such as reliability and safety, and how the industry is working to answer the increased need from OEMs were discussed by battery manufacturers and automotive OEMs.

DCA: test sequence

DCA is a key performance driver for 12 V automotive batteries and is a priority research objective in CBI’s Technical Roadmap. Discussions during this breakout topic focused on new test sequences to measure DCA. Producing tests that better reflect real-world conditions for automotive lead batteries is vital to measuring DCA accurately, and industry leaders discussed preliminary results and the implementation of new DCA sequences.

DCA: measurement

As a complementary session to the DCA test sequence topic, a breakout session was held to tackle the contributing factors to disparities in DCA measurements during charge and discharge. The so-called “DCA memory” effect requires further exploration, and a special working group has been established to study this effect in participant’s laboratories. This session really showed the value of the DCA & Heat workshops in tackling key issues facing the automotive lead battery industry and the vital research work that is generated as a result of collaborative discussion amongst industry leaders.


High-temperature testing at the cell level can be difficult to implement, and scientists spanning the entire industry discussed best practices and examples of lead battery test cells used for high-temperature studies. A special working group has been formulated to assist in implementing new high-temperature tests, specifically the nKLT, into test cells. 

Failure modes

Positive grid corrosion and paste shedding are the primary failure modes for lead batteries in high-temperature testing and applications. Metallurgists, electrochemists and battery engineers joined together in this session to discuss corrosion, positive additives and pioneering techniques for studying positive electrodes. This work will be vital in addressing failure modes and ultimately enhancing the performance of lead batteries for 12 V automotive applications.

Day 2 of the DCA & Heat Workshop featured interactive discussion from participants across the globe, including researchers, OEMs and battery manufacturers

What's next?

As we move into the sixth year of DCA & Heat Workshops, the cross-industry collaboration facilitated by these events has propelled key performance enhancements for automotive lead batteries. The interactive sessions continue to be a crucial driver in undertaking advancements in the technology and delivering vital insight into ensuring 12 V lead batteries remain a dominant technology in the future to meet evolving automotive technical demand. 

By Dr Matt Raiford

CBI’s special China meeting hears that research is driving lead batteries into the future

When this year began to move to virtual platforms for meetings, CBI’s annual China Workshop was the first event on CBI’s calendar to be impacted. This week we had the great opportunity to hold a virtual Special China Meeting, sponsored by Shandong Jinkeli Power Sources and Shangdong Huayang, with our members and partners in China and the wider Asian region, joined by more than 90 participants from across the lead battery industry. 

Attendees joined from the leading companies and associations from the lead battery industry including TiannengChaoweiLeoch, Fengfan, Shuangdeng/China ShotoSacred SunVision GroupNaradaHammondand Camel

An analysis on lead battery markets, both current and future forecasts, was provided by Dr Geoffrey May, CBI’s Battery Science Consultant. All applications for lead battery technology were covered in the analysis including industrial, motive power and telecoms, and attendees heard about the strong market growth particularly in the automotive and energy storage sectors.  

CBI's Battery Science Consultant, Dr Geoffrey May, delivers a market presentation on lead batteries

Research remains the cornerstone of CBI’s work. Our technical program spans our global membership and Dr Matt Raiford, CBI’s Technical Manager delivered an update on CBI’s current research program. Special highlights included research focused on enhancing lead battery performance for energy storage and automotive applications by delivering improved cycle life and DCA (dynamic charge acceptance) performance.  The future direction of work may expand our research program to cover both motive power and industrial applications which remain a vital market for lead batteries. CBI is driving lead batteries into the future and our research is vital in achieving the performance objectives set out in our Technical Roadmap

 The role of the industry in communicating the benefits of lead batteries continues to be a significant undertaking and one which is seeing fantastic alignment between the global lead battery industry. CBI’s interactive map of energy storage installations remains a focal point of our communications and China is an extremely important region featured on the map with some of the largest lead battery projects worldwide. 

China’s shift towards energy storage is driving demand for all batteries with an increase of 157% recorded for electrochemical energy storage in the first three quarters of 2020 according to the China Energy Storage Alliance (CNESA). Lead batteries are a vital electrochemical technology representing a 14% share in China. There is clearly a fundamental role for lead batteries in future energy storage as a safe, cost-effective, reliable and highly recycled technology. Check out our technical case studies to see lead batteries in action.

Finishing with an in-depth panel discussion, the speakers were joined by CBI Director Dr Alistair Davidson, and global battery experts Mark Stevenson of Global Lead Technologies and Dr David Rand from CSIRO. Covering topics from lead battery recycling, smelting processes, market predictions and advancements into lead battery technologies. Extensive discussions were also held with regard to the future for lead batteries in e-bikes and as auxiliary battery for hybrid and electric vehicles.

Panel discussion: Dr Alistair Davidson - CBI, Niamh Owen-McLaughlin - CBI, Dr Matt Raiford - CBI, Dr Tony Tong - CBI, Dr Geoffrey May - CBI, Dr David Rand - CSIRO, Mark Stevenson - Global Lead Technologies

CBI is looking forward to meeting in Suzhou next year for our annual CBI China Technical Workshop and the latest updates from CBI can be found on our WeChat channel. Members can view the presentations from the event here.

Groundbreaking dual-chemistry energy storage system launches at UK Port to deliver net-zero carbon operation

CBI has invited GS Yuasa, a global battery manufacturer, to join our guest blog series and share their contribution to an exciting project underway in the UK. The project, funded by the UK’s Research and Innovation agency, is using a dual-chemistry battery system to provide energy storage for Portsmouth International Port. Looking to achieve a net-zero carbon operation, the Port’s battery energy storage system will be able to charge electric vehicles using a solar-powered microgrid. For more examples of lead batteries in action in energy storage, check out CBI’s interactive map.

In a groundbreaking project combining both lead and lithium battery chemistries, Portsmouth International Port in the UK now has the capability to power electric vehicles at a green and cost-effective rate thanks to world-leading battery manufacturer, GS Yuasa. The goal of the project is to determine the best microgrid system set up utilizing these battery technologies.  

With the system going live in October 2020, expert engineers successfully installed their industry leading lead and lithium-ion batteries into a cutting-edge dual chemical battery system, one of the first of its kind in the UK. 

The system is a vital component of an integrated energy network that the Port is developing as part of its transition to net-zero carbon operation. The latest step in this green energy transition is a project funded by Innovate UK, the Research and Innovation agency of the UK Government, called Port Energy System Optimisation (PESO). 

The EV charging station will provide charging for the Port’s industrial trucks and cars with the aim of extending the capacity to charge passenger EVs in the future. The project aims to evaluate the optimum component mix and control architecture for a microgrid within the port and its interaction with external networks.

Electric vehicle charging
Electric vehicle charging station at Portsmouth International Port

Energy storage is a crucial element of microgrids. The dual chemistry energy storage system is produced by GS Yuasa and was first trialed in 2018. The PESO project is a great opportunity to expand on the development of this unique configuration. GS Yuasa is a leading global manufacturer of both lead and lithium-ion batteries, recognizing the synergy that can be obtained when both are used in combination for energy storage applications. The Portsmouth system combines valve regulated lead batteries (VRLA) and lithium-ion (LiB) cells connected in parallel to a common DC bus feeding a single AC-DC power conversion system (PCS). 

The direct connection brings significant cost reduction by the elimination of PCS units and energy management system complexity. The system consists of 240 cells ENL480-2 volt VRLA cells, made in GS Yuasa’s manufacturing facility in Ebbw Vale, Wales. The lithium element comes in parallel with 3 strings each containing 144 cells LIM50EL LiB cells, made in Japan. The system can discharge for 2 hours at full power, or with extended energy output at lower powers.

GS Yuasa installs the dual-chemistry lead and lithium-ion battery energy storage system

In this configuration, the LiB components provide all of the energy output while the battery is in high state of charge. This plays to the high cycling and power capability of the LiB cells. The larger capacity VRLA component provides less frequent, longer-term cycling which is needed for renewable energy capture from the large PV arrays that will be deployed in the port and close by.

A particularly useful area of the direct paralleling is that the round trip efficiency (RTE) of storage is much higher than for hybrid systems. VRLA batteries require several hours of final charging at low power. The efficiency of the PCS drops significantly in this period. With direct paralleling all charging can be made at optimum power for PCS efficiency. The transfer of small charging currents from LiB to VRLA, needed to complete the charging of the latter, even continues while the LIB is discharging into the PCS for another cycle.

VRLA battery installation at Portsmouth International Port

This fusion of battery technologies takes advantage of the strengths of each chemistry and combines them to deliver the best energy storage system for the project. As demand for clean, renewable energy storage continues to grow exponentially across the globe, the need for all types of batteries to achieve a low carbon future will be crucial.

To find out more about GS Yuasa, their products and the PESO project visit  

By Peter Stevenson, Senior Technical Co-ordinator at GS Yuasa Manufacturing UK

Fundamental science research at Argonne National Laboratory to enhance lead battery performance

CBI has invited Electric Applications Incorporated to join our guest blog series to share insight into the exciting lead battery research underway at Argonne National Laboratory. Don Karner, President of EAI, who manages the project on behalf of a research consortium made up of North America’s lead battery industry, writes about the importance of fundamental scientific research programs. CBI’s Technical Roadmap identifies priority research goals to enhance lead battery performance in order to meet future demand and the project at Argonne is an example of one of the research projects delivering an in-depth understanding of lead batteries to achieve these goals.

The Lead Battery Science Research Program (LBSRP) is a pre-competitive research consortium bringing together more than 90% of North America’s lead battery industry. Consisting of lead battery manufacturers and industry suppliers, LBSRP members are at the forefront of research and innovation into performance improvements for lead battery technology. As demand for advanced batteries continues to increase across a range of applications, from automotive and industrial to energy storage, fundamental scientific research programs are vital. Members of the group include:

The LBSRP conducts research work at the US Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement managed Electric Applications Incorporated. The resources of the national laboratory system provide the capability to perform basic and applied research into the electrochemical processes inherent in operation of a lead battery, that is beyond the capability and the resources of any single lead battery manufacturer. A better understanding of these processes will ultimately provide the consortium’s members the pre-competitive scientific insights to help make significant product improvements in key performance areas such as Cycle Life, Partial State of Charge Cycling and Dynamic Charge Acceptance. All of these key areas of battery enhancements will facilitate better batteries for use in vehicles, utility and renewable energy storage, and the motive power industry. The work from the LBSRP is aimed at improving greenhouse gas reductions offered by micro-hybrids using lead batteries, with the cycle life increases positively impacting lead battery performance for energy storage system (ESS) applications.

Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory equipment at Argonne
Argonne and collaborators will use the bright x-ray beams at the laboratory's Advanced Photon Source to investigate the further potential of lead batteries

In the second year of a three-year program, LBSRP research work is conducted at ANL by its Chemical Sciences and Engineering division (CSE) and by its Material Sciences division (MSD).

Research work by the CSE division at ANL is led by Principal Investigator Tim Fister and utilizes the ANL Advanced Photon Source (APS). The APS is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility funded by the United States Department of Energy Office of Science. Using high-brilliance X-ray beams from the APS it has been possible to study the precipitation and dissolution of lead sulfate crystals on working Plante negative electrodes. Recent work has progressed to more complex pasted electrodes; by utilizing a small specifically designed lead test cell it has been possible to study the in-operando phase and crystallographic changes on both electrodes during formation and subsequent cycling.

The APS provides a unique capability to trace the electrochemical reactions in an operating lead battery cell, providing insights into parameters affecting battery operation that have never before been visible in a working cell. Additional advanced techniques, such as tomography, are also being successfully applied to study lead working electrodes. Research work by the MSD division at ANL is led by Principal Investigator Vojislav Stamenkovic exploring the basic science of lead battery operation using the Advanced Materials Laboratory at ANL. Under the laboratory direction of Pietro Papa Lopes, MSD experimental work has focused on cyclic voltammetry and in-situ ICP testing of very high purity Plante negatives and the influence of additives to the negative electrode active materials. Recent work is investigating the role of carbon in the negative electrode by studying the electrochemical processes on glassy carbon electrodes. 

Synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron

Consortium member scientists and engineers regularly meet to review and debate technical progress, agree on significant findings and provide future direction for the research program. This level of pre-competitive technical co-operation between companies competing in the marketplace has been critical to the success of the LBSRP. Future research performed by the LBSRP will build on this pre-competitive cooperation and will focus on developing a fundamental understanding of lead battery electrochemical processes under a range of operating conditions and influences from various additives. Mathematical modelling of these processes will ultimately provide design tools for LBSRP members to improve the design and operation of their battery products.

Demand for batteries shows no sign of decreasing, as the transition to a future focused on clean mobility and clean energy increases the need for high-performing, sustainable and reliable batteries. The work of this Consortium is driving forward enhancements in lead battery technology to meet global decarbonization and electrification ambitions.

By Don Karner, President, Electric Applications Incorporated

CBI Technical Workshop: Lead batteries are on an innovation journey

Lead batteries are on an innovation journey. That was the resounding message in the latest edition of CBI’s Technical Workshops. In a two-day virtual session, member companies and partner organisation heard about the progress of the suite of research projects currently underway from CBI’s extensive technical program.

With a dedicated, first-time session Communications Session, CBI was joined by partner industry Associations BCIEUROBAT and ILA to share the vital role of communications for delivering the message of innovation in lead battery technology, specifically through the Essential Energy Everyday and Charge the Future campaigns.

Future potential and market growth for lead batteries is predicted to be substantial. And it covers all the applications currently served by the technology: energy storage, automotive, motive power and industrial uses.

To really grasp this potential, collaboration is needed amongst the industry. From members and partners to the associations serving regional needs, our message is the same: lead batteries are on an innovation journey.

CBI’s research program is a key area in which these messages of innovation can be translated into communications material to support the wider membership and objectives of the industry.

The special Communications Session demonstrated the alignment and cross-engagement currently taking place between the Associations representing the entire lead battery industry. Joined by Donna Snyder, East Penn Manufacturing’s Vice President Marketing and Advertising, the Communications panel discussion delivered insight into how member companies can leverage the content produced by Associations to support their own digital and advocacy strategies. 

(Top row) Donna Snyder – East Penn, Gert Meylemans – EUROBAT, Hywel Jarman – ILA, (bottom row) Lisa Dry – BCI, Niamh Owen-McLaughlin - CBI

The remainder of the workshop focused on the CBI technical program.  During Day 1, UCLA’s research team presented on their ground-breaking project to visualize the dynamic of carbon-enhanced negative electrodes in lead batteries, followed by Borregaard’s presentation on their collaborative investigation into the influence of carbon black and organic expanders to improve enhanced flooded batteries (EFB) for micro-hybrids. The technical session ended with an update on a grid energy storage research project by Electric Applications Incorporated (EAI).

Day 2 moved to our European projects with the leading universities and research institutes. TU Berlin presented their work on best practices of cell testing for EFB with regards to Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA) and high-temperature durability, and Fraunhofer ISC covered the effect of carbon surface functional groups on electrochemical behaviour of lead-carbon electrodes.

Jochen Settelein – Fraunhofer ISC, Matt Raiford – CBI, Sophia Bauknecht – TU Berlin

Wrapping up the workshop was a discussion on CBI’s current request for proposals (RFP). 2020’s RFP had a strong focus on research into energy storage applications and how to maximize the performance of lead batteries for this growing market. Discussion focused on the feedback from CBI membership concerning the proposals in the current RFP.  One insightful member asked of future RFPS, discussions covered possible examination of positive electrodes in different applications, an often important yet overlooked part of lead batteries.

For more details on our research projects, check out the news releases and videos covering the projects here.

Charging ahead: EnerSys enhances battery power and faster forklift recharging

Materials handling vehicles such as forklift trucks and pallet trucks, are a vital tool for logistics, manufacturing and the global movement of goods. With 90% of the world’s forklift trucks using lead batteries, the rocketing demand for this battery technology is driving innovation for this application.

CBI member EnerSys is one of the battery manufacturers at the forefront of innovation in this space. With increasing pressure on warehouse and production areas to maximise productivity, increased focus has been on the cost and performance of both materials handling vehicles and the batteries which power them. The need for high-performing, reliable and low-maintenance batteries has never been greater.

As the Consortium’s technical roadmap has set out, achieving greater cycle life for lead battery technologies is essential to continue sustaining market demand to 2030 and beyond.

A multitude of lead battery technologies exist for different applications, with an extensive innovation journey over the last two decades. As a cost-effective, reliable and highly recycled battery technology, innovation has focused on performance enhancements over traditional lead batteries. EnerSys offer two advanced lead battery products using Thin Plate Pure Lead (TPPL) technology that are particularly suited for materials handling applications:


The addition of carbon to batteries is a well-known performance improvement mechanism for lead batteries and has been investigated by research partnerships organised through the Consortium’s technical programs. 

Battery charging systems also play a crucial role in battery performance, with intelligent charging provided for the TPPL range of batteries by NexSys® and NexSys®+ battery chargers. By having a management system which switches off modules as the battery charges, each module operates at its optimum loading and efficiency. The high-frequency power conversion system design delivers significant energy savings and also reduces charging time by up to two hours, with the chargers designed to reduce energy consumption by up to 35% for TPPL batteries. By pairing battery and charging systems, energy efficiency is maximised whilst also eliminating the potential for overcharging. 

The pre-competitive research of the Consortium for Battery Innovation with our global membership of battery manufacturers, materials suppliers and research and testing institutes facilitates development and innovation in lead battery technology to ensure it continues to play a central role in delivering essential services across the logistics industry.

Smart Battery System Management for Smart Grids

Expert Panel Blog Series: CBI invites member company Battery Energy Power Solution’s Dr Michael Glenn and CBI’s Battery Science Advisor Dr David Rand to write about their insights into how smart battery management systems are necessary to deliver higher levels of system performance and consistency for lead battery energy storage.

As the world’s demand for clean energy grows, energy storage systems must improve in the areas of performance, safety and consistency. Decarbonization of electricity by switching from fossil fuels to renewable and other non-fossil sources, coupled with increased electrification of other sectors of the economy, is considered a pathway to sustainable development. The introduction of ‘renewables’ does, however, radically change the characteristics of electric energy systems (‘grids’). Solar cells and wind turbines, for example, are best placed where the weather conditions are favourable but, nonetheless, are intermittent, variable and stochastic sources of energy. 

Batteries are being employed for smoothing out the variability of renewables and assisting instantaneous power-balance required by the grid. There is also an increasing trend for consumers to schedule, manage, and control their own renewable generation. This energy is stored locally in batteries ― not only for their own consumption but also, when surplus, for sharing with others through the grid.  

Can ‘smart’ grids be made to accommodate this massive distribution of energy?  If so, can lead battery technology follow suite?

CBI members have shown that state-of-the-art lead chemistry can deliver high cycle-life at the individual cell level, e.g., 5000 cycles at 70% depth-of-discharge.  By contrast, when cells are assembled into large systems their cycle-life can diminish. Consequently, many companies in the lead battery industry are working to achieve system equivalence to the ultimate cell performance by using a Battery Management System (BMS) to deliver long-lasting energy storage facilities.  

A hybrid energy storage system at the M5BAT facility in Aachen, Germany utilizes advanced Exide lead batteries to optimize battery performance for grid stability and integrating renewables into the energy market.

Energy storage systems are often constructed from parallel strings, where each string is a series combination of individual batteries (single cell or module). Battery packs are assembled from many cells (tens to hundreds of units), all of which must be equalized to maximize system performance and longevity; otherwise, reliability is limited by the weakest cell. 

Cells operating in strings misalign in terms of their state-of-charge (SoC) that must be corrected through charging. Overcharging or undercharging a cell leads to premature failure, which is due principally to grid corrosion and sulfation. Therefore, each cell must receive the correct amount of charge according to its state. Whereas the traditional method of overcharging is sometimes adequate for cell balancing when applied to small systems, this does not hold true for larger facilities (> 100 units). 

Narada lead-carbon batteries are used for a 25 MWh/16 MW frequency regulation project for the German power grid in Bennewitz, Germany.

Changes in the internal resistance of a cell can be used to estimate its SoC. When a cell is fully charged, excess current is diverted through a bypass resistor and thereby avoids deleterious secondary reactions and/or unnecessary heating of the cell. Direct-current internal resistance obtained from current and voltage data is available from simple monitoring equipment. Improvements can be made by using an alternating-current perturbation signal to provide both capacitive and resistive contributions to the impedance that together offer a more detailed depiction of cell condition. This method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) ― a technique that has been employed to investigate smaller devices and has enabled many breakthroughs in electrochemistry research. 

Applying EIS to large cells is challenging due to typical bandwidth limitations in high-power test equipment.  This problem is exacerbated when operating at high currents and high perturbation signal frequencies. The high currents delivered from large battery installations are also prone to non-stationary distortion. Such behaviour is due to the increased time required to reach quasi-equilibrium, especially during low-frequency measurements which take longer to execute. Despite the technical challenges, enhanced methods for determining cell state have been identified as a key requirement for the development of a ‘smart BMS’ capable of providing superior levels of system performance and consistency.

In effect, the above challenges can be overcome by (i) refining the analogue signal processing with booster amplifiers and (ii) minimizing the time required to conduct a measurement by using the multi-sine perturbation method.  The latter is a specific type of EIS where the current of the perturbation signal is modified — as opposed to the voltage — to allow in-operation measurements to be performed on a cycling cell. A booster amplifier can adapt the amplitude of the current perturbation signal to minimize both the total harmonic distortion and the noise-to-signal ratio; i.e., Galvano electrochemical spectroscopy with adaptive amplitude (GEIS-AA).  

The single-sine measurement technique scans each frequency sequentially, thus the time required is given by the sum of each individual frequency’s measurement duration. This process differs to the multi-sine technique which simultaneously injects multiple perturbation signals of different frequencies. Consequently, the time required to complete a multi-sine measurement is dictated by the lowest frequency perturbation signal and is significantly shorter.

BMS that can be implemented in the field must be cost-effective. A path for BMS‒EIS technology is to truncate the perturbation signal range to frequencies that provide essential information.  In principal, such impedance data can be captured by the smart BMS hardware from where it can be used for local control purposes. The information is also sent to cloud systems for analysis that employs data-based learning tools.

Across the globe, lead batteries are utilized for a wide range of energy storage systems, from large-scale frequency regulation used to stabilize national electricity grids, to microgrids paired with renewable energy sources.  CBI’s interactive map is showcasing installations powered by safe, reliable and sustainable lead batteries.

Dr Michael Glenn, Principal Technical Development Officer, Battery Energy Power Solutions 
Dr David Rand, Honorary Research Fellow, CSIRO Energy and Battery Science Advisor for CBI

Energy boost at ELBC: how pioneering research is changing the shape of modern lead batteries

This year’s ELBC featured a lot of firsts. First time being held virtually. First time featuring a live studio. And the first time it was co-organized by the Consortium for Battery Innovation with the International Lead Association

With the challenges of the pandemic impacting the global stage in every way, the decision to move ELBC to a live and online event had to maintain ELBC’s reputation as a scientifically and technically rich conference. ELBC has always been the forum for technical debate, market discussion and networking of the global lead battery industry.

The breadth of highly important topics relevant to the industry were covered by a diverse speaker line-up: industry leaders, researchers, market analysts and more. The live and online format of ELBC featured pre-recorded summaries for each session, followed by a live panel discussion chaired by battery experts.

The interactive Technical Sessions not only delivered the scientific content which is the cornerstone of ELBC, but also generated opportunities for questions, discussion and debate amongst delegates.

Watch the highlights from day one

The opening of the conference by Dr Andy Bush, Managing Director of ILA, reiterated the critical role of lead batteries, especially during the pandemic, with essential services and infrastructure relying on batteries for power. Increasing competition from other battery technologies only strengthens the need for “faster and more impactful innovation, in order to unlock the full potential of lead batteries”.

This is where CBI comes in. Our core focus is research and innovation. The dedicated research session was a key opportunity to share the Consortium’s path for innovation in lead battery technology as detailed in our Technical Roadmap. Improvements in dynamic charge acceptance and cycle life have been identified as top priorities to ensure future opportunities are grasped for lead batteries in the diverse markets they’re used in. 

The research session featured some of the latest work being undertaken in lead battery research, from the use of carbon additives to enhance DCA performance to cycling performance benchmarking for energy storage.

Watch the highlights from the second day of ELBC

Now more than ever, energy storage is a fundamental driver for clean, renewable energy transitions across the globe. With an encouraging message from Patrick Clerens, Secretary General of the European Association for Storage of Energy (EASE), lead batteries are expected to increase their storage market share over the next 10 years in Europe. And this trend is expected to happen globally.

With the growing importance of batteries for delivering a low carbon future, technologies which are innovating have many opportunities for future investment across all applications.

Check out the highlights from the third and final day of ELBC

Black Diamond Structures, LLC combine advanced nanomaterials science and battery testing to support the lead battery industry

CBI has invited member company Black Diamond Structures, LLC to join our guest blog series with a focus on their advanced nanomaterials science and battery testing activities. The core mission of CBI is to undertake research to improve the performance of lead batteries for a diverse number of applications in different ways, such as enhancing DCA performance and cycle life. We work with our global membership throughout the lead battery supply chain, including materials suppliers, to support innovation in the technology and promote the crucial role lead batteries play, now and for the future.

At Black Diamond Structures, LLC (BDS) we let our MOLECULAR REBAR® (MR) technology do the talking. With dozens of global customers adopting our application-specific products for their automotive, storage, and traction needs, MR’s message is being heard loud and clear. But how do we give our discrete, high purity, carbon nanotube-derived technology its “voice”? Through rigorous internal testing and the dedicated support of our development partners. 

The demands made of lead batteries have never been higher. With lithium-based competition rising and environmental factors playing a role in Europe and Asia, lead technology must adapt to defend its incumbency in many applications. Thankfully, the Consortium of Battery Innovation is leading the way with its technical roadmap and promotion of the vital role lead batteries play across many applications. To meet demands, the industry is leading two key initiatives: 

BDS supports both these initiatives with our in-house testing capabilities and our MOLECULAR REBAR® products.

New testing specifications set by leading institutions are aggressive, often requiring complicating programing, advanced hardware, and levels of sensitivity not often heard of in the industry. Although protocols like the “New Key Life Test, or nKLT” (working name) from CENELEC, SAE-J2801, and various “Run-in” DCA tests are carefully crafted to provide accurate prediction of field performance in as short a time as possible, they present a problem: few of the world’s battery manufacturers have the capability or circuit availability to execute them. 

Enter Black Diamond Structure’s battery testing facility. In our Bitrode-equipped laboratory (129 channels, 25-1500 A, 0-20 V, -25-75 oC), we are capable of running the entirety of the world’s testing procedures to help our customers prove that their MR-enhanced batteries are capable of transcending the needs of the industry. For rapid verification of the MR-driven improvements, our data scientists leverage cloud computing to generate reports and cross-reference findings across our extensive database.

BDS 12V Testing Facility

MOLECULAR REBAR® technology improves chargeability, consistency of performance, cycle life, warranty return rates, and, more recently, corrosion resistance (PbAC product line) but only through constant optimization and material-screening in our 2 V cell facility can we continue to provide improvements that help our customers develop the next generation of world-class batteries. Our research has provided a new EFB solution through a collaboration with Addenda Corporation which combines our technology with a customized expander to provide the highest EN 50342-6 DCA measurements ever achieved in our cell lab while reducing water loss by >50% when compared to a control. Electrical cell testing is corroborated by materials analysis (x-ray diffraction, mercury porosity, and SEM) which helps us understand our mechanism of action to inform product development. 

BDS 2V Testing Facility

Our type of research-driven, collaborative product development differentiates Black Diamond Structures from other material suppliers and, we believe, is the fastest and only way to ensure a bright future for the lead battery industry.

By Paul Everill, Vice President, Research and Development, Black Diamond Structures

Energy storage will fundamentally change the energy landscape

This week, the CBI team attended ESACon20, the first virtual conference on our calendars since the COVID-19 pandemic began.

Organized by the US Energy Storage Association, the move online did not disappoint. With keynotes from the US Department of Energy and exhibitors from across the energy storage sector engaging in interactive discussion via live booths and networking lounges, the outcomes of the event were clear: the demand for clean, renewable energy storage is continuing to soar, and a range of technologies are needed to fulfil this clean energy transition.

With ESAConTV live throughout the 4-day event, attendees had a steady stream of content covering all aspects of energy storage: markets, technologies, development and policy. 

Day 1 heard from the US Department of Energy’s Deputy Secretary of Energy, Mark W. Menezes, that “energy storage has the potential to fundamentally change the energy landscape”. With the dawn of the Energy Storage Challenge in the US, the message from Menezes to “innovate here, manufacture here, deploy globally” resonates strongly with the US lead battery industry which has a successful home-grown manufacturing and recycling base. 

Our industry has a clear opportunity to continue innovation in lead batteries to grasp future energy storage opportunities, with the prediction that energy storage is "the next great chapter in a story of American energy innovation” a resounding message. CBI’s technical roadmap has set energy storage as one of the pillars of future research work to enhance lead battery performance for this application.

Day 2 of ESACon20 held a special learning lab organised by CBI to share some of the exciting new research underway in lead battery technology, with a specific focus on energy storage applications given by CBI Technical Manager Dr Matt Raiford. Angie Rolufs from Paragon shared upcoming opportunities in the US for microgrids and fast-charging EV stations utilizing lead batteries, followed by Dr Frank Fleming from EAI debuting CBI Battery Match, a new tool launched at ESACon20 to match energy storage end-users with the best lead battery for their systems.

With 100 attendees, the CBI learning lab ended with a panel discussion highlighting the significant opportunities to further develop the performance of lead batteries through research and innovation. It also emphasized some of the exciting next-generation developments in the technology such as bipolar lead batteries and lead-carbon, and demonstrated to attendees that there are many energy storage installations both in the U.S. and globally that are successfully being powered by lead batteries. 

The US Energy Storage Association has set an ambitious goal of 100 GW of new energy storage deployment by 2030 with a portfolio including batteries, thermal, mechanical and pumped storage hydro. Across the globe, demand is growing and the global markets session on Day 3 offered insight into other regions such as Europe where Patrick Clerens from EASE joined the panel to share that battery energy storage is critical to meeting Europe’s decarbonization goals.

Day 4 kicked off with the CBI team joining a panel discussion “What’s next?”, with a key theme echoing from the ESACon20 event: the future for energy storage systems should include all battery technologies. The importance of energy storage being technology agnostic will help contribute to a successful transition to a decarbonized and electrified future, and the sector should install a range of batteries depending on their strengths and the technical requirements of the specific system.

One of the take-aways from ESACon20 is sustainable energy storage is not only vital for maximizing the utility provided by renewable sources. Energy storage is also a valid and cost-effective pathway to quickly upgrade the utility grid in the US and elsewhere to handle imminent electrification needs for more data centers, EV charging stations, and greater societal energy need. As the greater levels of vehicle electrification necessitates more charging stations, energy storage will be essential for not only demand reduction but total grid integrity. Lead batteries are poised to provide a key solution for these impeding needs, especially due to their long record of safety and reliability. 

To access the presentations from CBI's learning lab "Advanced Lead Batteries: Intelligent Energy Storage" please contact us.

To view CBI's interview with Nuvation Energy about the role of BMS for lead battery energy storage, click here.

To view CBI's exhibitor showcase with ESA, click here.

Lead battery energy storage and battery management systems – Interview with Nuvation Energy

The Consortium for Battery Innovation joins Nuvation Energy during the U.S. Energy Storage Association Conference (ESACon20) to speak about future opportunities for lead battery energy storage, and the role of battery management systems.

The interview features Director of CBI, Dr Alistair Davidson, Dr Matthew Raiford, Technical Manager of CBI, and Nuvation Energy's CEO, Michael Worry.

Battery management systems are increasingly being used for energy storage systems, including those utilizing lead batteries, to provide optimized performance, intelligence and extra safety for systems.

Nuvation Energy provides battery management systems and engineering services to organizations designing and building energy storage systems.

Check out some of our technical case studies featuring Nuvation's BMS below:

Peak power: world’s highest-altitude weather stations powered by lead batteries

Some of the most impressive qualities which set lead batteries apart from other technologies is their versatility and ability to withstand harsh conditions to provide reliable power. Many of us are familiar with energy storage systems using lead batteries as backup for data centres and hospitals, or in use in systems supporting electricity grids and microgrids supplying electricity.

But have you heard about their use in powering meteorological stations in some of the highest-altitude locations on Earth? From Mount Everest to glacial ice caps in South America, lead batteries are providing vital power for scientific equipment to gain insight into global weather patterns.

A weather station installed on the Quelccaya Icecap in Peru uses lead batteries for power at 5,650m above sea level. The Quelccaya Icecap is the second largest glaciated area in the tropics (photo credit: Dr Baker Perry)

A recent article called “The Expedition to Heaven on Earth” in Discover Magazine featured Dr Baker Perry, a Professor of Geography at Appalachian State University, about his work travelling to the world’s highest locations to install meteorology stations and study weather and climate at extreme high altitudes. At an astonishing 8,430m (27,657ft) above sea level, a station installed on The Balcony on Everest’s South Summit has had a lead battery installation since May 2019.

These insights are key for understanding glaciers and climate, two areas of significant importance on the global stage as climate change continues to dominate agendas of governments and societies across the world. From measuring solar radiation, precipitation and wind speed, to larger-scale patterns such as the subtropical jet-stream, these measurements are fundamental to understanding how the Earth is changing.

Installed in 2014, Nevado Chacaltaya’s weather station is being reliably powered by lead batteries at 5,160m above sea level (photo credit: Dr Baker Perry)

Totally disconnected from the grid, the meteorological stations generate power through a system combining solar panels and lead batteries, a hardy technology that is reliable, robust and cost-effective for such expeditions. As a low-maintenance technology, lead batteries are offering a sustainable solution to ensure the stations function throughout periods with no human presence. 

For more details on some of the world’s highest off-grid mereological stations being powered by lead battery technology, see below:

Quelccaya Icecap (5,650 m asl), Peru
12V 24 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed in October 2014, replaced in July 2015 due to station and solar panels being buried by snow

Nevado Chacaltaya (5,160 m asl), Bolivia
12V 12 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed October 2014

Laguna Sibinacocha (4,895 m asl), Peru
12 V 12 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed July 2017

Phortse (3,810 m asl), Nepal
12V 24 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed April 2019

Everest Base Camp (5,315 m asl), Nepal
12V 24 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed May 2019

Everest Camp II (6,464 m asl), Nepal
12V 24 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed May 2019

Everest South Col (7,945 m asl), Nepal
12V 24 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed May 2019

Everest Balcony (8,430 m asl), Nepal
12V 24 Ahr Lead Battery
Installed May 2019

Testing equipment to demonstrate lead battery performance enhancements

Innovation is a strong theme running through the lead battery industry. For the technology, the leaps and bounds in performance improvements have been seen since its creation 150 years ago.

As demand for batteries continues to grow and the technical requirements continue to evolve depending on the application, the need for high-quality testing equipment to demonstrate the performance enhancements in lead batteries is essential. 

CBI is currently involved in a number of research and innovation projects around the globe with the aim of advancing lead battery performance, and this is essential to our industry.  And it is vital to have the ability to quantify the success of research and demonstrate performance enhancements. 

Tests and standards are therefore a vitally important area for the future of the lead battery industry, both in terms of developing tests and standards that appropriately reflect the performance gains of lead batteries, and for developing cutting-edge equipment that can be used to test current and future batteries.

Earlier this year, we visited Digatron Power Electronics in Aachen, Germany, to witness first-hand the innovative solutions they manufacture for lead battery testing equipment, supporting the Consortium’s goal of undertaking research and innovation into advanced lead batteries.

Driving technical innovation in lead batteries for energy storage systems

Expert Panel Blog Series: CBI invites Dr Geoffrey May, Battery Science Consultant to provide his views on the key success factors for the deployment of lead batteries in energy storage systems. Geoffrey has worked closely with CBI and ALABC over many years and has seen the organisation grow in importance in driving technical innovation in batteries for all applications.

One of the key topics defined in the CBI Technical Roadmap is the improvement of lead batteries for Energy Storage Systems (ESS) especially for use with renewable energy sources. This will also lead to better performance and durability for industrial batteries for standby and motive power applications. 

Renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind energy are by their nature variable and intermittent and the use of energy storage stabilises the electricity network as well as allowing energy to be stored for use at another time. There are many scenarios and types of application. Public electricity networks have statutory obligations to control system frequency and voltage. Batteries can provide a nearly instantaneous boost to the network or absorb energy as required. This is the electrical equivalent of spinning reserve and provides stability. CBI recently visited two 25 MWh projects utilising lead batteries for frequency regulation in Leipzig and Bennewitz, Germany.

25 MWh frequency regulation project in Germany using advanced lead batteries for energy storage

Other applications use energy storage to time shift generation and use or to manage electricity tariffs. Solar PV sources use batteries to store energy during daytime for use at night. This can be used domestically or in local networks where there is no grid connection, for example on the Scottish Islands of Fair Isle and the Isle of Muck lead batteries are being used in energy storage systems harnessing wind and solar power. 

Solar energy powers a lead battery microgrid on a remote Scottish Island

The key areas for technical improvement to lead batteries for ESS applications are in cycle life and in partial state-of-charge (PSoC) cycling. For deep cycle life many current generation batteries have lives in the range from 1,000 to 3,000 cycles but there are few batteries being supplied commercially with lives of 5,000 cycles at 70% depth-of-discharge. This is a game changer. Doubling the cycle life or better decreases the cost of ownership in direct proportion. Calendar life needs to increase as well with service lives of 15-20 years. PSoC operation is also important for use with renewables due to their intermittent nature. Solar PV charging may not return the battery routinely to a full charge and improved behaviour under these conditions is beneficial. Charge efficiency is another key parameter and careful management of overcharge is one of the factors in achieving long cycle and calendar life.

The main research areas defined by CBI for ESS batteries are:

In addition to technical improvements there is also a need to look at the operational and capital costs of battery systems. This is normally expressed as the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) or levelized cost of storage (LCOS) which is essentially the lowest price in $/kWh that electricity may be sold at for a project or system to break even. CBI is working with specialists to build a simple model that will allow lead batteries to be compared with other types of battery or energy storage system and expects to be able to demonstrate this model in the near future.

Lead batteries already enjoy a low price in $/kWh for initial investment and the realisation of extended cycle lives will have a massive impact on LCOS. The recycling credentials of lead batteries are well known and at end-of-life there will be a credit for the lead value whereas for Li-ion batteries recycling routes are the subject of a research effort rather than established methods and there will be a net disposal cost at end-of-life. Lastly and of vital importance lead batteries are much safer than Li-ion batteries. The electrolyte is aqueous and intrinsically non-flammable whereas the electrolyte in Li-ion batteries is an organic liquid which burns readily when ignited. Deployment of battery energy storage in domestic and commercial premises requires safety to be the first priority. Lead batteries already enjoy an important position in ESS applications and with targeted technical improvements there are strong prospects for market growth.

By Dr Geoffrey May, Battery Science Consultant, CBI

Microporous’ Brand-new, Advanced PE Separator Production Line Begins Operation

Guest blog: CBI invites member company Microporous to share their innovation story with us about the launch of their new PE Separator Production Line. Based in Piney Flats, TN, the new installation will help meet growing demand for automotive and industrial lead batteries. CBI’s membership brings together the entire industry involved in the global lead battery industry, from battery manufacturers and recyclers to materials and equipment suppliers.

In mid-2018, Microporous started an expansion project in Piney Flats, Tennessee, to construct a completely independent manufacturing plant where up to two Polyethylene (PE) separator production lines will be installed. A battery separator is a polymeric membrane placed between the positively charged anode and negatively charged cathode to prevent an electrical short circuit, and is a vital part of the lead battery.

After two years of non-stop efforts from the entire Microporous team, this new facility was commissioned in March 2020 and is now ready to deliver the highest quality products to meet our growing customer needs in the Americas. As PE separators are predominately used for lead batteries and the volume continues to rise, it is essential for Microporous to have the available capacity to meet market needs.

Microporous’ newest and most technically advanced lead battery separator manufacturing facility is now fully operational, located next to its Headquarters in Piney Flats, TN. This new facility triples Microporous’ PE separator capacity in the U.S. and enables our U.S. plant to produce the whole range of separators for both automotive and industrial applications. 

Microporous' new battery separator manufacturing facility next to its headquarters based in Piney Flats, TN, U.S.

Our Piney Flats facility now offers products with all different backwebs ranging from 150-550 microns with several new tools addressing the different requirements, whether this is an ultra-low resistance separator for EFB batteries or a separator enhancing charge acceptance for both automotive and industrial segments. 

This new “state-of-the-art” PE line has been designed to include innovative features and the latest technologies available in the industry. The quality and efficiency of the process control package are all part of the high-tech automation systems. It also beats Microporous’ existing record on low hazardous emissions, to ensure sustainable production for employees, communities, as well as customers. 

Microporous' new state-of-the-art PE line

Microporous’ Piney Flats, U.S. and Feistritz Austria facilities are both working on cutting-edge separator developments involving separator additives and separator designs, all of which are made easier to develop and subsequently produce on advance lines typified by the new Piney Flats’ PE line. 

As a leading lead battery separator manufacturer who has been developing quality and innovative products for 80+ years, with a broad product portfolio (rubber separator, rubber-PE hybrid separator, PE separator, and Absorbent Glass Mat separator), Microporous strives to bring the right solution to every application.

Visit our website to learn more about Microporous:

By Wenyan Wang, Marketing and Business Communication, Microporous

CBI research team visit Japanese energy storage and advanced lead battery manufacturing hub

Demand for energy storage is taking off in the Asia Pacific region, which is fast becoming a hub for advanced lead battery manufacturing.

The hike in demand for battery energy storage is driven by the accompanying pressure for more renewable energy capacity, with the region now accounting for more than 45% of the world’s installed battery storage capacity.

CBI visited Japan earlier in the year to meet with the leading players in the country’s lead battery industry, where the technology remains key to facilitating ever more sophisticated and complex energy storage requirements.

Longstanding CBI member and co-developer of the UltraBattery, The Furukawa Battery, was the setting for a tour of the manufacturing plant in Harigai, north of Tokyo, which is also the location of an energy storage system using the successful UltraBattery. 

The Furukawa Battery site manufactures storage batteries and power system products for the automotive and energy storage sectors. 

Visit to The Furukawa Battery Hairgai Plant. (l-r) Toru Mangahara, Masaru Miura, Dr Alistair Davidson, Niamh Owen-McLaughlin, Dr Jun Furukawa, Wataru Tezuka

The UltraBattery is a hybrid energy storage device that combines ultracapacitor technology with lead battery technology. This technology has demonstrated excellent performance levels at partial state-of-charge (PSoC) and is very well suited for energy storage systems such the facility at the Harigai plant. 

You can view our short video here about the 300 kW system, which provides peak shaving, and thereby cost-effective and reliable energy, for The Furukawa Battery’s manufacturing plant.

Our team also met with the Battery Association of Japan (BAJ) which represents the country’s vast battery industry.

A special meeting was held with the lead battery members GS YuasaHitachi Chemical and The Furukawa Battery, where we gave an update on our latest technical research program, communications and marketing, and the standards and testing program which is a key global initiative bringing together the lead battery industry across different regions of the world. 

CBI continues to work with the lead battery industry in all of our different work programs, to ensure future opportunities and market potential is grasped for emerging markets such as energy storage and existing markets such as automotive and motive power.

The growing importance of fundamental research to the lead battery industry

Expert Panel Blog Series: CBI invites Dr Boris Monahov, Battery Science Advisor, who was the previous program manager of ALABC, to share his thoughts on the importance of fundamental research

2019 saw the launch of the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI), following three decades of ALABC, a research organization dedicated to the development of lead battery technology. CBI continues this important work with a renewed focus on driving innovation in lead batteries, paired with a strong communications and marketing program. It continues and brings to a higher level the unique research partnership of lead metal mining and recycling companies, major battery manufacturers and industry suppliers aiming for rapid battery performance enhancements and maintaining the strong position of lead in the fast-growing battery market. Other battery chemistries still do not have such a global and well supported science and technology knowledge generator.

The successful transition from the 26-year-old ALABC to a new type of association has provided the lead battery industry with new research topics, innovation and communications programs to grasp the new market opportunities facing the industry. Building on the success of previous technical programs and summarizing the research needs and expectations of the membership in new market conditions, CBI launched a new technical roadmap. The goals and targets set out in the roadmap were developed in close partnership with all levels of management, research, production and marketing from CBI’s global membership. It is with pride and satisfaction that I observe how this exciting global research initiative is developing through the years.  

For me, the focal points in the roadmap are two: supporting performance enhancements for automotive and energy storage applications – the major market opportunities for lead batteries today and in the coming decade. Ambitious benchmarks were set for charge acceptance, cyclability, water loss and corrosion resistance in enhanced flooded automotive batteries, as well as for cycle life in energy storage batteries. 

Based on these target values the new technical research program for 2019-2021 was developed and launched. For the first time in lead battery research, new research methods and techniques developed in recent years for other applications have been combined with the latest battery science theory in order to provide next-generation results. 

I am particularly excited about the in-situ TEM observation of crystal electrochemical nucleation and electro crystallization; neutron diffraction of active mass samples; getting control over the synergetic effect of carbon additives and lignosulfonates on crystal growth in negative plates for achieving pre-selected DCA and water loss goals; learning how to control overcharge in order to extend cycle life.

These fundamental science studies are being supported by important initiatives and tools for the CBI membership and end-users of lead batteries. Some key that stand out to me have been the development of an energy storage online tool, an overview of battery related standards from across the globe, initiatives for better communications support and finding new opportunities for lead battery energy storage

Alongside members from the lead battery industry, CBI extends the partnerships with universities and academic research centers. As a result, a new group of bright researchers have been involved in the research projects and joined the lead industry community, many of them young people – something our industry vitally needs for developing new and advanced batteries: carbon-enhanced, bipolar, using new materials and technologies. Preparing a new wave of lead battery engineers and scientists is an important task for the future of lead batteries. The collaboration between industry, research and academia can be seen in the proposal submitted by CBI for Horizon 2020 funding, aiming to develop a new bipolar battery design with parameters demonstrating improved performance compared to existing lead batteries.   

For the first time in its long history, the lead battery industry has been involved in basic material science research in partnerships with both governments and academic institutions across the world. This includes work with the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the US, the European synchrotron ESRF and Imperial College London in the UK. CBI also strengthens the research collaboration with CEA in France, the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany and many more.

Since launching in 2018, the ANL project has been actively supported by CBI, which is disclosing new, unknown and unexpected aspects of the electrochemistry of lead batteries. 

CBI continues its close partnership with the Research Center of Ford in Germany, and together with Dr Karden, several researchers from CBI member companies combined efforts for disclosing the secrets of DSCA, effect of carbon, DCA and water loss. I believe these studies are extremely important and are of critical importance for the future of lead batteries in the automotive sector. The workshops held each year are attended by global car manufacturers, battery experts and researchers, with the results obtained already used by the industry. 

The new program, bringing together fundamental scientific research and communicating it to CBI’s stakeholders is central to CBI’s work and is supported by the membership. This is illustrated by the rapidly growing number of members: already well over 100 from countries in all continents! I wish the talented young management of CBI to continue in their great success. 

By Dr Bois Monahov, Battery Science Advisor, CBI

Living laboratory successfully powered by advanced lead battery energy storage

CBI Guest Blog: Stephane Menand, Director of Solar Villages and Microgrids: Research, Operations, and Outreach at the Center for Research in Energy and Environment

At the Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T), an EcoVillage is being powered by advanced lead batteries. This living laboratory, which conducts renewable energy research, education and outreach, has been successfully running since 2018 with the support of the Consortium for Battery Innovation.

The solar-powered homes in the EcoVillage, which double up as student accommodation, were constructed by S&T’s very own students for the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Energy Solar Decathlon competitions. A fusion between research and industry, CBI Missouri-based members EnerSys and NorthStar Battery provided advanced lead batteries for the energy storage systems installed in the homes. 

Solar-powered homes utilizing a lead battery microgrid

Part of a microgrid, the role of the batteries is to be a reliable source of power in case of grid outage. Connected to the solar panels on the roof of the homes, the batteries undergo daily micro charge and discharge cycles as solar generation fluctuates. For the last two years, the advanced lead batteries have successfully provided a high level of performance required by the system, demonstrating their qualities as a robust and reliable energy storage technology.

The figure shows a sample of the signals that are collected every few minutes to monitor the operation of the battery packs.

This project is just one of a vast variety of energy storage projects utilizing lead batteriesacross the globe. CBI works with their membership which consists of the most important players from the entire lead battery value chain, and combining the research expertise of world-class universities and research institutes, the Missouri S&T project represents the collaboration fostered by CBI to ensure the future demand for clean, sustainable energy storage is met by advanced lead battery technology. 

As members of S&T’s Microgrid Industrial Consortium, CBI is able to help guide the S&T consortium’s research and hands-on training pursuits to include a focus on lead battery energy storage. Research projects that have been funded through the microgrid consortium include: Electrode Paste Structure-Property Relations in Lead Acid batteries for Improved Weight Management, Application of Lead Acid Batteries in Microgrid Systems, and Understanding Degradation Mechanisms of Lead Acid Batteries and their Hybrid Systems

Dr. Mehdi Ferdowsi, Director of the S&T Microgrid Industrial Consortium, said: “We have appreciated the opportunity to conduct research on lead battery energy storage systems in partnership with CBI. Lead batteries have been around for over 150 years, but it has been exciting to know that there are new opportunities to extend battery life, reduce battery weight, and to identify where lead batteries are the best choice for specific microgrid applications.”

Monitoring battery performance in real-time

The EcoVillage and the Solar Village living laboratories fall under S&T’s Center for Research in Energy and Environment. The center aims to utilize the living laboratories to expand research opportunities in sustainable and resilient housing, smart home technologies, and solar energy with energy storage. S&T is also looking at opportunities to offer training courses in solar energy and energy storage. A recent Funding Opportunity Announcement from the US DoE identified the need to train first responders on the unique requirements for buildings with renewable energy and energy storage. S&T researchers responded with a concept paper that outlines the unique aspects of the EcoVillage living laboratory to support this need.  The US DoE responded favourably to the concept paper, and encouraged the S&T research team to submit a full proposal.

In addition to first responders, the EcoVillage solar homes and lead battery energy storage systems provide the opportunity to provide hands-on training to installers, maintainers, code enforcers, and inspectors of renewable energy and energy storage systems. 

There is an identified need in our area for this type of training and workforce development opportunity. Our vision is to develop the EcoVillage with additional resources and classroom space to provide both hands-on and classroom training to create a pipeline of highly trained individuals who can support the growth of renewable energy and energy storage in Missouri.

By: Stephane Menand, Director of Solar Villages and Microgrids: Research, Operations, and Outreach at the Center for Research in Energy and Environment. 

Photo taken at the Solar Energy International Training facility in Colorado

Battery innovation roadmap for Europe’s low carbon future

Batteries are an essential element in the day to day life of Europe. Used in a diverse range of applications providing energy storage for renewable energy and being utilised in low-emission vehicles, to providing energy for hospitals, data centres and communications network, lead batteries are one of the key battery technologies in this landscape.

Europe’s 2050 climate-neutral goal will need batteries to ensure the success of the clean energy transition. The Consortium for Battery Innovation is excited to support the launch of EUROBAT’s “Battery Innovation Roadmap 2030” White Paper which provides an overview of the potential for battery innovation across all technologies in Europe in the years ahead, and closely aligns with our goals for lead battery innovation.

The Consortium undertakes cutting-edge research into developing the next generation of advanced lead batteries, and our collaboration with EUROBAT includes the recent submission of a H2020 proposal aiming to develop a new lead battery technology to support Europe’s growing energy storage needs.

Exide Technologies lead batteries used at the M5BAT energy storage project in Aachen, Germany are an example of the crucial role the technology will play for Europe's low carbon future

EUROBAT’s White Paper closely aligns with the goals of CBI’s technical innovation roadmap which sets out the research priorities of the lead battery industry to support Europe’s decarbonisation and electrification goals. With a technical program working with some of the leading players in Europe’s lead battery industry, research institutes and universities, CBI’s research is ensuring lead battery technology is innovating to support a low carbon future.

With a manufacturing base right here in Europe, combined with a 99% recycling rate of lead batteries in the EU, lead battery technology will be essential for Europe’s green recovery by supporting jobsclean energy projects and low-emission mobility and infrastructure

By Dr Alistair Davidson

Research and innovation vital for Europe’s green recovery

Research is of paramount importance for the European recovery package according to Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) Committee. Reacting to the package presented by the European Commission this week, ITRE highlighted that the recovery plan should be driven by innovation. 

Research and innovation drives the work of CBI as a global organisation undertaking research into advanced lead batteries. Batteries will be an essential tool for Europe to deliver on a green recovery and a carbon neutral Europe by 2050. 

The need for an energy policy which can kick-start the economy in a post-COVID-19 recovery will be essential as noted by ITRE, and advanced lead battery technology will be a key player in assisting efforts to promote the role of clean and sustainable energy storage.

Across Europe, from remote islands to large-scale projects supporting electrical grids, lead batteries are utilised as a reliable, sustainable, cost-effective and safe battery technology for energy storage projects.

All technologies must continue to innovate, and CBI is driving the research and innovation needed to deliver higher performance for greater energy demand in the future. Our collaboration with Europe’s leading battery manufacturers, energy storage and industry associations, and world-class universities and research institutes, our technical program is delivering the next generation of lead battery technology to the energy storage needs of the future. 

By Niamh Owen-McLaughlin

Virtual CBI workshop gives latest research updates from technical program

The Consortium brings together the breadth of players involved in the global lead battery industry, from battery manufacturers and recyclers, to materials suppliers, end-users and research institutes. 

The latest iteration of CBI Technical Workshops moved online last week with nearly 100 attendees coming together from all over the world to hear the latest results from CBI’s innovative technical program.

The first day covered research updates from CBI’s 2019 suite of projects, targeting fundamental research into improving lead battery performance for automotive and energy applications. 

First up was an update from UCLA’s project which is visualizing the dynamics of carbon-enhanced negative electrodes with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This was followed by an overview of a project between Exide Technologies and ICMA using neutron diffraction for the first time in lead battery research to reveal new techniques to explore lead batteries in-situ. You can watch a short video about this project here.

Up next was a progress update from Borregaard, working with East Penn Manufacturing, Hammond and Cabot on studying how to optimize the effect of additives on lead battery DCA performance. The project is systematically studying different ratios of the common additives used in lead batteries: carbon, lignosulfonate and barium sulfate. 

The session finished with an update from Electric Applications Incorporated (EAI) whose project is using a controlled overcharge protocol to enable lead batteries to meet the life cycle and TCO requirements of the emerging battery energy storage market, and to improve cycle life. You can read the full press release about this newly-launched project here

The second day of the workshop covered the remaining three areas of CBI’s core work: marketing, communications and standards and testing. 2020 will be an exciting year for CBI and the wider lead battery industry with the launch taking place later this year of an energy storage online tool bringing together the battery industry with customers in the utility and renewable energy space. 

Our communications and marketing session provided an update of the successful work of CBI in the last year promoting the essential and vital role of lead batteries for the increasingly important energy storage sector, and the new tools being utilized such as videos in sharing the latest research, innovation and key messages from our industry. Our LinkedIn and Twitter channels feature the latest communications updates from CBI. 

A key piece of work combining the latest innovation in lead battery technology and the importance of communicating this innovation to CBI’s key audiences and stakeholders is the European H2020 project proposal answering the LCBAT-8 call. If successful, the new project will develop new battery architectures providing higher energy density, performance and cycle life whilst maintaining excellent cost and sustainability benefits. This proposal demonstrates the key cross-industry partnership CBI fosters in the industry, bringing together expertise from partners including research institutes such as the ESRF, battery manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities and industry associations. 

 Following on from the successful project currently being undertaken at Argonne National Laboratory, where the synchrotron is being used for lead battery research in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, and a project at Missouri S&T where lead batteries are supporting a renewable energy microgrid, future opportunities for lead battery research are being explored in the US.

Day two finished with a presentation on standards and testing, a vital part of CBI’s work ensuring we are involved in key global standards discussions with the aim of guaranteeing the benefits of lead batteries are taken into account for a range of applications.

Our collaborative work with our members and partners across the globe is propelling the cutting-edge research and innovation into delivering the next-generation of lead battery technology. As the demands of society for a low carbon future result in an increased focus on clean mobility and clean energy, continued research into lead battery technology will be essential in ensuring lead batteries are poised to meet and grasp future opportunities.

By Niamh Owen-McLaughlin

Pioneering techniques deliver new insights into advanced lead batteries

Using pioneering techniques for the first time in lead battery research, a new way to gain in-depth understanding of lead batteries has been established.

The first project to be launched from CBI’s 2019 technical program was a collaboration between one of the world’s largest battery manufacturers, Exide Technologies, and a leading university in Spain, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA).

In a feasibility-style project, neutron diffraction techniques were used to study lead batteries in-situ, with the objective of understanding if this technique can be used as a tool for future research into lead battery technology.

We visited the project partners in Spain to see their work and talk about the project in detail. Check out the video below.

The initial work has shown to be an excellent way to understand the fundamentals of lead battery science, and a more in-depth project is now being put together. This project compliments the work being undertaken at Argonne National Laboratory in the US using high-energy x-ray synchrotron diffraction studies.

As the demand for higher-performing batteries grows alongside rising demand for clean energy and low-carbon mobility, this project is one of the vital ways in which CBI is delivering cutting-edge research and innovation to support a low carbon future.

Propelling innovation in automotive lead batteries: DCA & Heat Workshop

In its first ever virtual edition, CBI held a successful DCA & Heat Workshop which brought together nearly 200 people from across six of the seven continents, representing the global lead battery industry and car manufacturers.

The event, which is held every year in Europe, moved online last week due to the re-scheduling of the in-person meeting to October. 

Co-organised with CENELEC, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, CBI’s DCA & Heat meetings aim to drive discussion into the latest research into lead battery performance improvements.

Specifically targeting dynamic charge acceptance (DCA), the workshops are moving the industry closer to achieving CBI’s technical roadmap goal of improving DCA performance by 5 times to 2 Amps/Ah by 2022. This ambitious goal brings together lead battery manufacturers, materials suppliers, researchers and car companies in technical, in-depth discussion.

Continuing discussion from the EFB & Heat workshop held in 2019 in Bruges

Each day of the workshop featured a specific topic, starting with discussion of the formulation and initial testing of a new key life test (nKLT) for 12 V lead batteries in automotive applications. This first session covered a wide array of conditions and testing that was performed to formulate and qualify nKLT.

The second day covered research lab level cell testing including discussions of best practices, special concerns for high temperature testing, studies focused on test scaling and design parameters for cell when measuring DCA, and a discussion of how better cell construction can significantly improve data.  

The final day covered mechanisms related to DCA effects in a negative lead battery electrode. The discussion covered the effects of DCA testing changes on individual electrical performance characteristics, concerns and proper practices regarding techniques used to study lead battery electrodes, and the mechanisms that may govern DCA changes in negative electrodes over time.

As more of the world’s vehicles move to greater levels of hybridisation and electrification, the demand for automotive lead batteries will continue to increase. The ability of lead batteries to continue innovating and delivering performance breakthroughs will ensure the technology remains essential to the future of clean mobility across the globe.

The importance of continuing scientific discussion and progress in battery developments during this difficult time faced due to COVID-19 was made clear by the fantastic and record attendance for the interactive workshop.

Innovation award for ground-breaking technology

CBI is delighted that this year’s winner of the Battery Council International Innovation Award is ArcActive, a CBI member based in New Zealand. Their exciting new technology, AACarbon™, will play a significant role for the lead battery industry in reaching one of CBI’s highest priority targets set out in our technical roadmap.

Last year, CBI set a dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) target for automotive lead batteries of achieving 2A/Ah, which maximises the CO2 benefits of micro-and mild hybrid vehicles. As micro-hybrid vehicles are forecast to be the mass-market car for decades to come, the ability of AACarbon™ to improve lead battery DCA performance is ground-breaking.

CBI has set a research priority goal of increasing DCA by 5 times by 2022 to 2 Amps/Ah

ArcActive have achieved this by re-engineering the negative electrode of the lead battery to remove the lead grid and replace it with a non-woven carbon fibre fabric into which the lead active material is inserted. The construction has shown to have excellent performance at partial state-of-charge (PSoC), a key technical requirement for both automotive and energy storage applications.

Not only does this technology have the ability to be manufactured at the speed and volume necessary for commercial viability, it also fits in gold standard of recycling rate that sets the lead battery apart from other chemistries. 

We invited Stuart McKenzie, CEO of ArcActive, to share their innovation story with us.


ArcActive was founded on a simple concept: to help make the decarbonisation of society affordable. 

The business was founded in 2011 on Intellectual Property developed by Associate Professor John Abrahamson at the University of Canterbury. The IP relates to a novel carbon fibre material and early applications that were investigated included low energy light bulbs, ultracapacitors and solar cells before deciding on a novel, carbon fibre based negative electrode for the lead battery. 

ArcActive has developed an innovative technology called AACarbon™ which has re-designed the negative electrode of the lead battery, replacing the lead grid with a non-woven carbon fibre fabric. 

This innovative development provides a solution to a key technical challenge facing the automotive lead battery industry: achieving high and sustained DCA while having very low water consumption. The International Energy Agency has predicted that improvements in the efficiency of the non-electric car fleet will avoid the use of 9 million barrels of oil per day by 2040, and the use of lead batteries in virtually every vehicle on the road means this technology could significantly deliver on decarbonisation targets.

 ArcActive batteries are unique in being able to achieve the very high DCA targets set by CBI of 2A/Ah. This maximises the CO2 benefits of micro-hybrid vehicles, while still achieving very low water consumption results of less than 3g/Ah.

Our batteries perform as well as normal enhanced flooded batteries (EFB) and absorptive glass mat (AGM) batteries on other automotive tests, demonstrating high performance when utilizing ArcActive’s technology. As with any new innovation, there is a modest on-cost in moving to this material, but there is a strong value proposition for car makers to adopt the material as a low-cost option for CO2 reduction. 

Just as important as the performance levels of the innovation is the ability to manufacture the electrodes at speeds and volumes required to be commercially relevant in the lead battery industry. Developing the core processes has been a focus at ArcActive since its founding in 2011, and we are pleased to say that while work continues on this front, we have relevant, high volume throughput processes that enable the electrodes to be made at the very fine tolerances demanded by automotive applications. 

This combination of superior technical performance and high-volume manufacturing processes has allowed ArcActive to secure partnerships with some of the leading battery companies in the lead battery industry, who are working towards taking this technology to market as we speak. Our technology is also fully compatible with the lead battery recycling process.

While ArcActive’s focus has been on achieving high DCA for micro-hybrid automotive batteries, we have also been investigating the possibility of this technology being used in other PSoC applications. We have early but promising results for use of the battery in PSoC applications to support renewable energy generation, demonstrating that ArcActive’s negative electrodes do not appear to degrade in PSoC use.

Innovation in lead batteries is vital due to evolving market requirements and the challenges faced by other battery chemistries. Higher performance in a range of applications at PSoC, such as automotive, battery energy storage and forklifts, is essential. ArcActive’s innovative technology is ideally suited to facilitate the continued opportunities for lead batteries in these diverse markets and helping to usher in greater levels of decarbonisation across the globe.

By Stuart McKenzie, CEO, ArcActive

Artificial Intelligence for Advanced Lead Batteries

CBI invited the Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Sources at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences to share their research on using AI to improve the performance of advanced lead batteries

By: Dr Boris Shirov (IEES - BAS)

Last year CBI issued their first innovation roadmap for advanced lead batteries. In this roadmap, priority research topics for each type of advanced lead batteries were carefully selected after in-depth market analysis and review of the needs of end-users. Two parameters were identified as the highest research priorities for automotive and energy storage applications.

Automotive batteries represent more than 60% of all lead batteries sold worldwide, however a current challenge facing the industry is from the competing Li-ion market. In order for lead batteries to maintain their major role in this industry, the first priority target was set – increasing the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of automotive lead batteries by five times by 2022. 

With the boom in demand for energy storage, including in applications such as renewable energy installations and fast-charging EV charging stations, there is a huge opportunity for advanced lead batteries to take a share of this market. Therefore, the second priority target was set as improving cycle life by five times up to 5,000 cycles by 2022.

These ambitious targets were set with the knowledge that research is a key area in which the lead battery industry is active, for example, in various research and testing institutes, universities and lead battery manufacturer R&D departments. A good opportunity for achieving these highest priority research goals set by CBI is using artificial intelligence (AI) and cloud computing. Other chemistries are already using the huge potential of these platforms in order to better understand degradation processes as well as for developing better charging algorithms.

In the last two years at the Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Sources at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, we are building the foundations of using AI and cloud computing in improving advanced lead batteries for energy storage applications. The Institute is actively participating in projects in this area with the private sector. 

Battery testing in the IEES lab

One such project is developing an innovative cloud system for intelligent monitoring and management of lead batteries during operation. For an AI project, the earliest phase is heavy brainstorming – the problem to be solved should be specific and measurable. The first step was to identify the main parameters that will be measured and input into the machine learning model. The task of the model is to analyze all the set parameters and predict whether a battery or a string of batteries will fail or will need some kind of maintenance procedures. 

It is a well-known challenge that lead batteries are difficult to model, resulting in difficulty in predicting various failure modes. With aging, lead batteries change their behavior due to sulfation, acid stratification, corrosion etc. If these factors are taken into account and different charging/discharging algorithms are adapted based on these changes, then cycle life could be increased drastically. 

The main challenge is the identification of practical, measurable parameters of a lead battery such as voltage, internal resistance, temperature etc. and to corelate them with the above-mentioned failure mechanisms. The AI model that is being built at our Institute can adapt itself and apply best charging/discharging algorithms based on the parameters input into the machine learning from the monitoring system. Adaptation also means that we will be able to better assess the state of health of the batteries, as well as give an accurate prediction for end of life (EOL). All of the data is then fed into the cloud, so the system allows the remote gathering of data from different batteries at different locations.

When we talk about data and AI we come to the main point. AI needs data – big data. Building a precise and useful model requires a lot of data, but not just any data. If we want to build a usable, industry-oriented model we need to focus on data which is easily acquired and then bonded with electrochemical and postmortem analysis of failed lead batteries. Different applications require different types of batteries, different manufacturers apply different designs. That is why a comprehensive model for industry-wide usage needs data from all available sources. Therefore, in such projects, strong support and collaboration with the industry and the battery users is needed.

The project at our Institute is ongoing and so far, we have one patent issued. We are working hard on improving the model, thus helping advanced lead batteries to have competitive cycle-life. Using the expertise and data acquired throughout this project will give us opportunity in the near future to allow for intercessory steps to be taken to increase energy storage system performance indicators from the CBI roadmap, such as the system cycle life and total energy throughput.  From these predictions and models, new avenues for improvements will be opened and will help assist in the continued innovation of lead battery technology in order to meet the technical requirements of future energy storage demand.

By Dr Boris Shirov, Assistant Professor
Lead-acid Batteries Department, Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems (IEES), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences