2021 project INMA & Exide

Assessing industrial electrodes during operation for energy storage applications

In-operando Neutron Scattering Analysis of the Charge/Discharge Processes inside the Battery Electrodes

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón - INMA and Exide Group (Spain and Germany)

April 2021 – May 2024

This project aimed to apply neutron scattering experiments to analyze the charge and discharge processes occurring in lead battery electrodes and to provide insight into the working processes of lead batteries in energy storage applications

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Research priority

Analyze charge and discharge processes of battery electrodes to identify mechanisms

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Research area

Energy Storage Systems (ESS)

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Final results

• Cells using industrial plates were specially designed and manufactured for neutron experiments
• Distribution of crystalline phases of positive electrodes during charge and discharge of cells were successfully analyzed by using volume gauge technique
• For the first time, operando diffraction information has been obtained from cells containing commercial plates without stopping the cell operation for post-mortem analysis
• Analysis of cells using wavelength-selective imaging during cell operation provided 2D images of lead battery electrodes at different wavelengths, effectively highlighting different crystalline phases


This research project has successfully demonstrated the potential of this analytical technique to understand the charge and discharge processes and their products (e.g. crystalline phases) while lead batteries operate in energy storage configurations, providing possible pathways for lead battery performance improvement for ESS

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