Battery Match Battery Match

Improving Performance in Electric Vehicle Batteries  

CBI spoke to Marcus Young, an Associate Professor and Associate Department Chair for the Undergraduate Program at the University of North Texas (UNT) about a two-year project that kicked off in February 2023 to look at materials in low voltage (12V) batteries for electric vehicles in an effort to further improve performance of lead batteries.  

Lead batteries are still used in virtually every car on the road-from combustion engine vehicles through to Electric vehicles. Working alongside UNT, East Penn Manufacturing Company, and ECOBAT, CBI will further study the 12V battery electrochemical processes for materials and duty cycles common for lead batteries used in electric vehicles. By understanding more of how these batteries function in different charge conditions, temperature, and climate, we can determine what changes will attain a longer life span and better performance. 

Electric vehicles rely on lead batteries to provide safety functionality in the case of failure of the main propulsion battery.  This application is referred to as low voltage or auxiliary battery functionality. The lead batteries used in low-voltage EV applications use advanced alloys with different metallic additives to achieve current levels of performance. The study will focus on two specific additives, Ba (barium) and Bi (bismuth), and how their grain structure and influences on corrosion rates and crystallization would affect grid performance in the conditions found in EVs Previous research has shown that grids with Ba additives have reduced oxide formation, while Bi facilitates faster recrystallization. 

Using XRM – or X-ray microscopy, this project will investigate corrosion in batteries and look at the impact of Ba or Bi additives on battery life. The technique requires relatively thin samples to be used.  Extremely thin pieces have been created and used on the nano scale, so that they can be x-rayed. As the x-ray penetrates through these panels, researchers will isolate areas of interest and study the impact of aging time to see a source(s) of potential problems. 

Beyond lab-scale techniques, synchrotron experiments at the APS at Argonne National Laboratory will be used on large samples linking lab findings to real world lead battery products used in auxiliary applications.   

“We’re making battery life better for everyone,” said Young. He explained that ultimately this research will impact daily users as the battery storage community creates faster, better, and more efficient sources.    

New Solar And Battery Powered Tractor A Farming Solution For Africa 

Innovate UK Funding Malawi Trial of Low-Cost Tractor Featuring Lead Batteries and Solar Power for Deep Bed Farming 


[LONDON, 20 April, 2023]  AfTrak or Africa Tractor that will use solar and lead batteries, is both a prototype program and £270k project funded by Innovate UK as part of its Energy Catalyst Round 9 program, which officially kicked off in London today. 

Innovate UK will fund a prototype and a sustainable business plan for a potentially revolutionary tractor design, featuring lead batteries. The UK program, which invests in innovative business ideas across all sectors, will support an African farming project created in collaboration between the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI), UK- & Malawi-based charity Tiyeni, and Loughborough University.  

“The kick-off event exceeded expectations. We found it extremely valuable to network, not only with the Energy Catalyst team, but also with other innovators and stakeholders,” said AfTrak’s Project Manager, Dr. Carl Telford, a CBI’s senior research and innovation manager. 

Across large areas of Malawi, under the few inches of topsoil, there is a heavily compacted layer of rock-hard earth through which plants cannot penetrate.​ Tiyeni has created an innovative agricultural method called Deep Bed Farming (DBF) through their extensive business experience and a network of agricultural advisers. The tractor, being developed at Loughborough University, will be a low-cost, hand-operated, solution for farming in this difficult soil.  

Dr. Jonathan Wilson, a specialist in systems and mechanical engineering and leader of the Loughborough team notes, “We have a unique opportunity to take Tiyeni’s unique Deep Bed Farming technique and add Loughborough’s engineering & mechanization know-how to dramatically decrease upfront labor requirements.” 

The proposed AfTrak system is a micro electric tractor capable of mechanising land preparation in line with Tyeni’s Deep Bed Farming to prepare soil to a depth of 400mm. 

Over 800 million people have no reliable access to electricity, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, rural regions of Asia. ​ AfTrak also provides power for agricultural applications such as water irrigation and domestic applications such as phone charging, electric cooking and lighting.​ 


The AfTrak tractor will be trialed in Malawi by the Tiyeni team, with a focus on enabling an important agricultural technique, Deep Bed Farming.  

Tiyeni’s Country Director, Isaac Chavula comments, “This is a breakthrough. Finally, I can see a solution through the AfTrak tractors to break the hard pan soil that has long challenged farmers. By adopting the Deep Bed Farming technique, farmers can now envision relief with the AfTrak tractors.”  

In this initiative, AfTrak aims to: 

Tiyeni Executive Director Alex Gerard added, “I am so excited that Innovate UK has funded our project to accelerate the end of food insecurity in Malawi. Combining our innovative Deep Bed Farming method with a sustainable solar tractor, we could speed up the support for millions of small-holder farmers.” 

Telford added, “This is a perfect application and new opportunity area for utilizing lead batteries. Moreover, the anticipated outcomes are valuable. It’s an exciting time for renewable energy and lead battery storage, as this mechanisation of the Deep Bed Farming technique could be a game changer.” 

About Consortium for Battery Innovation 

The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:    

AfTrak is the second bid application to be awarded to CBI in the past year after LoCEL-H2, a sustainable microgrid project using lead batteries and a novel, lead-battery-enabled funded by the European Commission under the Horizon Europe program. 

About Loughborough University (LU) 

The Wolfson School of Mechanical Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering is one of the biggest engineering schools of their kind in the UK with a research portfolio of around £52m. CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology) has a cohort of around 60 academics, researchers and PhD students and a good range of laboratory facilities for prototype manufacture and testing. 

About Tiyeni UK (TU)  

A UK based NGO who have funded the development of Deep Bed Farming (DBF) as a response to extreme food poverty within Malawi. The organization has grown year on year as support and demand for DBF has increased. Alex Gerard was appointed as a full-time Executive Director in 2021. Tiyeni’s board has extensive business experience and a network of agricultural advisers who have contributed to the development of DBF. Farmers adopting DBF can double their agricultural yields and all but eliminate requirements for expensive and environmentally damaging imported fertilizers.​ 

Tiyeni Malawi (TM) is a Malawian company, funded by Tiyeni UK and operated at arm's length by a Malawian team, and led by an experienced Country Director, Isaac Monjo Chavula. Tiyeni continues to grow in size as DBF spreads across the country – especially since Malawi government approval. Historically the organization has focused on agriculture but is now diversifying into water management and carbon credits. Tiyeni is focused on ensuring all farmers in Malawi have access to training in DBF either through government extension workers, other NGOs, or through direct training for Tiyeni. The team are also developing the business model for smallholder deep bed farmers so they can leverage the other DBF benefits of carbon sequestration and water management. 

Future Battery Forum, Nov 27-28, 2023

Join us for CBI General Assembly and Technical Update Meeting at Asian Battery Conference

September 5 2023 at the 

Sofitel Angkor Phokeethra Resort, 
Khum, Vithei Charles De Gaulle, 
Krong Siem Reap, Cambodia

Energy Boost: CBI and ILA Open New Office in Brussels

The International Lead Association and Consortium for Battery Innovation have opened an office in Brussels to support the lead and lead battery value chains, and planned energy storage projects, as the EU strengthens its commitment to delivering net zero ambitions.

The decision to establish an EU base reinforces ILA’s long-term commitment to developing a sustainable lead value chain in Europe, as decision-makers focus on strengthening the EU’s strategic autonomy and embedding circular economy principles.

Dr Andy Bush, ILA’s Managing Director said: “The EU benefits from well-established lead and lead battery value chains and there is a need to nurture and develop the industry and the technologies we support on a much bigger scale to meet ambitious climate targets. While we have been working in Brussels for many years, our new office will act as a base for continued efforts to maximise support for the lead industry as well as continuing to engage in important regulatory discussions on a range of files.”

The move comes as the EU introduces new proposals designed to shore-up the supply of critical raw materials and boost low carbon industries in the shape of the Net-Zero Industry Act. Meanwhile, a proposal to include lead on the REACH authorisation list is being fiercely opposed by ILA, representing lead producers and downstream users who rely on lead to produce a wide range of economically and socially important products and applications.

The joint office will also act as a base for the Consortium for Battery Innovation’s energy storage work, with a focus on new projects working in collaboration with EU institutions, member companies and other partners. As lead batteries can be infinitely recycled, and are considered to be one of the top five most sustainable consumer products, CBI aims to support the work of the European Commission in strategically significant areas, such as the EU Industrial Strategy on energy autonomy and electric vehicles, and to play a pivotal role in the achievement of EU’s climate neutrality goals by 2050.

Dr Alistair Davidson, CBI Director, said the decision to open a Brussels office builds on the research group’s recent success winning a Horizon 2020 project to develop innovative microgrid technology for off-grid communities.

He said: “We are working with a wide range of partners in Europe to develop more energy storage projects which will help the EU meet net zero targets through innovative battery-based solutions. These include developing pre-competitive technical blueprints for applications such as EV charging stations and renewable energy storage facilities.”

Initially two CBI employees will be based in the Brussels office, on Avenue de Tervueren. Nicola Filizola joins as CBI Senior External Affairs Manager, and Dr. Athanasia-Maria Tompolidi as CBI Research and Innovation Manager.

New Clean Energy and Cooking Fuel Solution to Help Solve Energy Poverty for Isolated Communities in Africa

Planning is Underway for LoCEL-H2, a Four-Year, €10million Sustainable Energy Storage Project, Co-funded by the European Union

[LE BOURGET-DU-LAC, February, 2023] – A recently won European Union project by the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) will pair advanced lead batteries with green hydrogen to deliver a new source of clean, reliable, and sustainable energy storage for off-grid communities in Africa. 

Awarded through Horizon Europe, this collaborative, four-year project called LoCEL-H2, (or Low-cost, Circular, plug & play, Off-grid Energy for remote Locations including Hydrogen), combines the expertise of lead battery manufacturers, academia, national laboratories, component manufacturers, and companies who are focused on integration, microgrids and renewables. 

LoCEL-H2 will generate renewable energy, storage, and fuel for deployment in isolated and remote regions of Africa, to support communities that cannot connect to an electricity grid. 

“The excitement around this innovative project is reflected by everyone involved,” said Dr. Carl Telford, the senior research and innovation manager at CBI. “Energy poverty is a problem that affects millions of people worldwide because they lack consistent access to electricity.”

The majority of the world’s population living in energy poverty are in Sub-Saharan Africa and are dependent on traditional stoves and fuels for their cooking. As a result, most of the domestic chores are handled by the women in these households, who then develop an increased health risk from a constant exposure to biomass, kerosene and/or coal fuels used for cooking.

Angel Kirchev, a senior expert, PhD, HDR, at CEA Tech and LoCEL-H2’s project coordinator
 holds up a sign during the kick-off meeting showing what this project will mean for off-grid communities in Africa.

The LoCEL-H2 project will provide a sustainable energy source as well as access to clean fuels. Another benefit will result in the education levels within these communities being positively impacted since they will now have access to online information through a reliable energy connection.

 “This project is important to help address the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), while having an impact on other areas such as health,” noted Dani Strictland, professor of electrical power engineering at Loughborough University and a member of the LoCEL-H2 partnership.

This project involves nine partner companies across western Europe who will develop new technology for a novel distributed microgrid, as well as a Battolyser. The Battolyser is a new solution for producing clean hydrogen technology to power cooking surfaces and would replace biomass fueled stoves. 

Whether as a response to climate impacts or future energy storage needs, advanced lead batteries are often an overlooked and innovative technology that bring safe, reliable, low-cost solutions to pair with a renewable source. 

By combining lead batteries with wind and solar power, this forward-looking energy storage project will deliver ongoing, affordable electricity to off-grid communities and become a deployable solution for other energy-deprived areas around the globe.

The two pilot areas for the project will be focused in Zambia and Ivory Coast. Angel Kirchev, a senior expert, Ph.D., HDR, at CEA Tech and LoCEL-H2’s project coordinator said, “CEA looks forward to coordinating this exciting and challenging 4-year project which will bring sustainable energy and green hydrogen to challenged communities.”

Watch our LoCEL-H2 Kick-Off Video here.

Image  Project Co-Funded by the European Union
The members of the partnership are CEA, Hoppecke, Hollingsworth & Vose, UNINA, Loughborough University, Sunkofa, University of Gabes, SAS Réseaux Hydrogène Décarboné RHYDE, and LUMS.

Contact: Lara Wilson

CBI Sr. Communications Manager   

 +1 (919) 287-1879

About Consortium for Battery Innovation

The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive, and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes, and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage.

For more information, visit our website:

About Loughborough University

Loughborough University is the home of world leading engineering, with an international reputation for being at the forefront of technological innovation and for maintaining extensive links with industry. The Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering is one of the biggest engineering schools of its kind in the UK.  The school aims to provide international leadership in research and innovation with a focus on climate change and net zero and has an unrivalled educational experience. Loughborough University is consistently in the top 10 in many university ranking tables for student experience.

Learn more at


Innovation of Lead Batteries at East Penn Manufacturing

In January, a few members of CBI’s team visited eastern Pennsylvania to tour part of East Penn Manufacturing’s facility which produces over 500 types of batteries, including a large number of lead battery designs. Indeed, East Penn produces gigawatt hours of batteries every year – and is a real-world, established gigafactory.

Norbert Maleschitz, East Penn’s Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer, shared his excitement about the future of lead batteries. With innovation as part of their DNA, he explained that East Penn is pushing its technology further through an ongoing investment into R&D and Engineering. As lead batteries’ role in meeting future energy demands grows, Maleschitz and East Penn support improvements in manufacturing because they are key for enhancing technical solutions to both customers and the industry.

Dr. Matt Raiford, CBI’s Senior Technical Manager, inquired about the projects and enhancements underway at East Penn. There are several activities focused on improving electrode design, material innovations, and overall battery designs. The results will be a key part in continued performance improvements for lead battery technology and vital for ensuring that these batteries can meet future energy storage requirements.

CBI also had the chance to discuss and view some ongoing project work at the Briedegam-Miksiewicz Innovation Center R & D Department. Dr. Carl Telford, CBI’s Senior Research and Innovation Manager, met with Perry Kramer, Director of Technology, Research and Development at the Center and was able to look at how they are working with New Zealand-based development partner, ArcActive, to fully take advantage of the development of this novel technology.

Perry explained how ArcActive Technology features a carbon felt that replaces the standard lead grid structure of the negative current collector, enabling significant increases in charge acceptance. A battery featuring this technology helps to lower emissions in micro hybrid vehicle applications, and also improves the charging characteristics of the traditional 12 V lead batteries used in electric vehicles (these ‘auxiliary’ batteries power a vehicle’s accessories and critical safety functions).

Perry shared an overview of another large project that is focused on increasing cycle life. Bi-polar battery technology offers the potential to increase cycle life by three times over standard Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) products while also reducing weight. The applications of this technology could range from use in automotive to reserve power and motive power, as well as other energy storage applications.

Telford and the rest of the team were particularly interested in East Penn’s work related to future manufacturing processes for lead batteries. Manufacturing needs to be very precise and predictable to enable the construction of a commercially successful, reliable, and dependable lead-battery product. East Penn has a large capability in manufacturing engineering and automation. Further innovations in manufacturing will provide the right mechanisms for extending battery longevity in future applications.

Finally, the team toured East Penn’s smelter and recycling facility. Lead batteries are a fantastic example of a product designed for complete end of life recycling, and currently over 99% of lead batteries are collected and recycled in North America. Their facility recycles everything including the acid. The facility recycles 182 million pounds of lead on an annual basis. In addition, they have a process in place to remove nitrogen oxide exhaust or off-gases and use them to create other products that benefit an adjacent industry.

Overall, CBI greatly appreciated the tour of East Penn to learn how their facilities’ efforts and leadership truly make the lead battery such an important contributor to global energy storage and a model for a more circular economy.

China Summit 2023

11-12 September, Sheraton Zibo Hotel

Upcoming events and conferences

Join CBI at upcoming events and conferences that we host or attend throughout the year.

ALBA 2023

Wolfsburg, Germany will be the host city for our next iteration of our successful, annual workshops focused on Advanced Lead Batteries. The Automotive Lead Battery Advancements (ALBA) 2023 Workshop, will be held on 14 June, from 11am-5.30pm and 15 June from 8.30am-3pm, and will include a networking dinner in the evening of the 14June.

This year’s ALBA will have plenary talks concentrating on auxiliary applications and on power-supply requirements in support of Functional Safety.

During parallel break-out sessions, the following topics will be addressed:

Download the draft ALBA workshop schedule.

CBI will also hold its European Technical Workshop on 13-14 June and Safety-relevant State of Function (SSOF) Workshop on 15-16 June. All events will take place at the Leonardo Hotel and CongressPark in Wolfsburg.

Click here to register.

We are looking forward to meeting you in person this summer in Germany!

CBI Energy Storage Strategy Meeting 

The International Lead Conference Pb2023 will be held at the Grand Hyatt Athens, June 21-23.

The full schedule includes 4 days of workshops, meetings, conference sessions and networking events covering all the critical issues affecting the lead industry worldwide, including :

Register now at Pb2023

CBI EU Technical Workshop

13-14 June, Wolfsburg, Germany

This year´s CBI European Technical Workshop on 13-14 June and the workshop focused on automotive lead battery advancements (ALBA) on 14-15 June are both being held in Wolfsburg, Germany. 

CBI EU Technical Workshop on 13-14 June 2023 (for CBI members only)
CBI/CENELEC ALBA Workshop on 14-15 June 2023

The CBI EU Technical Workshop will provide an overview of the work of CBI including its technical program, funding efforts in EU, technical roadmap, market update as well as CBI working groups and ESS Strategy for 2023-2024. 

CBI/CENELEC Workshop on ALBA will have plenary talks focusing on auxiliary applications and on power-supply requirements in support of Functional Safety. During parallel break-out sessions, several topics will be addressed:

We are looking forward to meeting you in person this summer in Germany!

Contact CBI for more information.

Click here to find out more about ALBA.

CBI General Assembly at the BCI Convention

26 April, Louisville, KY, US

View the Agenda here

CBI visit to Clarios HQ in Hanover, Germany

Our members are vital for CBI’s ecosystem as they help us develop messages, interventions, roadmap, and our own call for projects. This helps CBI conduct pre-competitive research that benefits all CBI members, the battery industry in general and the wider research community.

As a large battery maker, Clarios are an invaluable member. Additionally, Clarios were instrumental in setting up and supporting the work of CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, Dr Carl Telford, in developing public funding opportunities in Europe and deliver exciting, game-changing projects.

CBI team visited Clarios HQ in Hanover, Germany, to strengthen this collaboration and to learn more about their current R&D work.

« We have developed the Start-Stop technology in AGM to become the benchmark technology for premium cars with micro-hybrid functionalit. Innovation in process technology like the Clarios Power frame technology has been leading the way and is presently the standard in the industry. For the future, we see a lot of life left in Lead technology. We see further innovation potential in charge acceptance and cycle life to further improve the technology » (Dr Christian Rosenkranz - Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios & Chairman at CBI)

Watch the first video from CBI's visit to Clarios:

Exide’s Portuguese sites are reducing carbon emissions with PV and a BESS using lead batteries

The CBI team visited Castanheira do Ribatejo, in Portugal, to meet with Exide Technologies and to find out more about its facilities.

Exide operates two state-of-the-art solar installations at its battery production (in Castanheira do Ribatejo) and battery recycling facilities (in Azambuja), using lead batteries (see our case study here).

José Barreiros (Director Product Development Industrial EMEA at Exide) explained how it works in detail:

« We have a combined capacity of 4.5 MWp, with overall 11.250 solar panels installed. This is enough energy to supply more than 1.500 households. With these solar parks, we have reduced the carbon emission by more than 20% across both sites.

In our production plant, the PV installation is combined with our own battery energy storage system (BESS). It contains 70 inverters and 290 Sonnenschein Solar battery cells, with an available stored energy of around 500kWh.  The battery storage system is part of a ‘Green Social Building’. It operates as an island for the factory workers, where the solar panels provide energy during the day and the batteries provide power at night ».

BESS using lead batteries at Exide in Castanheira do Ribatejo, Portugal.

The type of lead batteries used in this Battey Energy Storage System (BESS) are Exide’s very own Sonnenschein Solar gel batteries. This battery range « has been used in complex, large-scale network power applications across the world for many decades », José continued:

« With their proven reliability, maintenance-free and first-class safety features, gel batteries offer a long service life and protection against deep discharge. Also, since lead batteries are fully recyclable at the end-of-life, our Sonnenschein Solar range provides added sustainability for renewable energy storage applications ».

For CBI, energy storage applications utilising battery technology is an increasingly important market-key to help governments around the world meet future electrification and decarbonisation targets and Exide’s Product Development Director agrees:

« As a global player of battery and energy systems, Exide Technologies is in prime position to inspire today’s and tomorrow’s generations with smart energy storage solutions, as we recognize the need to both preserve and energize the world. Exide Technologies offers smart energy storage solutions to support the transition from fossil energy to renewable energy sources. We focus on storage systems and solutions for greenhouse gas reduction and the optimization of TCO in energy-intensive industries.

Our energy storage solutions will enable businesses to become ‘greener’, more productive and in control of their energy usage and costs ».

Another benefit of this project is its unique and innovative Battery Management System (BMS) for lead batteries:

«Our installation is utilizing the battery management system to control the voltage of each cell and the temperature on each string, via four probes, assuring a tight control of the depth of discharge and charge on each string.

Taking into consideration that the battery operates on one cycle per day, this will allow deeper control of the state of health of the cells and act as soon as needed. It also predicts the available energy of the system depending on the power», concluded José.

This installation is one of many worldwide energy storage systems using lead batteries. If you’re interested in more projects like this one, please explore our Interactive Map.

Military power: U.S. Army chooses resilient lead batteries “to deploy energy storage systems anywhere in the world”


The U.S. Army has chosen advanced lead battery energy storage systems to enhance its operational effectiveness in disaster zones and in combat.

A project led by Paragon Solutions, Inc., and the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is providing a new set of systems that can provide power for critical military operations anywhere in the world.

Paragon, a woman-owned engineering firm, and a member of the Consortium for Energy, Environment, and Demilitarization (CEED), partnered with CBI, a global lead battery research hub, to develop the winning proposal in response to a request issued to CEED members by the Consortium Management Group (CMG). The effort is sponsored by the U.S. Government under an Other Transaction Agreement between CMG and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.*

Paragon and CBI will develop transportable, robust, lead battery energy storage systems that can be integrated into tactical microgrids and demonstrated at the Contingency Basing Integration Training Evaluation Center (CBITEC) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. The CBITEC site is managed by the U.S Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL).

The eighteen-month $3.5 million program also seeks to demonstrate how U.S. Army units can use lead batteries sourced from the Department of Defense supply system and from locally available sources such as vehicles, while increasing the lifecycle for certain battery types to meet battlefield energy demands.

Retired U.S. Army Captain and government technical lead for this project, Tom Decker, said: “This is an important project to the Army because in any type of contingency environment, while in combat situations or following a natural disaster, it all falls back on the Army Corps of Engineers to provide power to continue operations. And this is where lead batteries come in.”

“By being able to use lead batteries that are available on the ground and make an energy resource out of them, we have the ability to continue whatever mission we’re on, be it disaster relief or engaging in combat.”

“This just adds to our capabilities. The durability of lead batteries has been proven over many decades so we know what we’re getting when we use the technology. But then we get the added value of the advanced lead battery systems which the industry supplies, and this is the technology that makes the systems viable.”

“Lead batteries give us the ability to deploy energy storage systems anywhere in the world, enhancing our resiliency. And one of the current US administration’s priorities is reducing carbon footprint, so by decreasing our use of fuel and adopting more innovative energy storage systems, we’re reducing our carbon footprint too.”

Implementation of the systems will be done to NATO specifications, and if successful, would allow for deployment in many different countries. This solution aims to overcome issues with host nation power grids by designing an energy storage system that accepts host nation power, stores it, and then provides it in a form that is compatible with U.S. Army equipment.

The resiliency, safety and reliability of power supplies are priorities for military operations. Lead batteries have been chosen for the project as the technology of choice because of their inherent safety and robustness in extreme weather as well as their availability in the field. Using lead batteries would provide Army Commanders with local sources of batteries in vehicles and telecommunications towers around the world.

The Paragon/CBI team will develop energy storage systems providing between 125kWh to 250kWh of critical energy using three different lead battery technologies provided by US-based battery manufacturers, Advanced Battery Concepts (ABC), East Penn Manufacturing and EnerSys. These operational workhorses will be transportable, easy to operate by military personnel, and can be integrated into tactical  microgrids to provide power for critical loads.

The project team will also develop a ‘plug-and-play’ 30 kWh energy storage system, which will give soldiers the ability to plug into an energy storage source made up of used lead batteries found in locally available sources, such as vehicles. Marcus Ferguson, ERDC-CERL project officer, and manager of the CBITEC site said: “After Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico in 2017, approximately 130,000 damaged vehicles were lying unused with an untapped energy source: lead batteries. If this energy could be harvested, future disaster relief and other military operations, wherever they are in the world, could be provided with reliable, low-cost energy”.

The prototype lead battery energy storage systems will be constructed and tested in various simulated duty cycles to recreate typical field conditions for military operations. The aim is to develop systems that could be rolled out across the U.S. Army. Furthermore, when the lead battery ESS prototypes are connected to Army tactical quiet generators (TQGs) the systems will provide low heat signature and quiet energy assets - essential requirements for U.S. Army activities in the field.

Dr. Matt Raiford, CBI project manager, added: “Lead batteries have been chosen for this important project based on their resilience, consistent performance at all temperatures and their accessibility. This will set a benchmark for smaller microgrids providing essential power and security in a range of settings from remote rural areas to larger military installations.”

Raiford continued: “CBI is committed to developing advanced lead batteries for energy storage applications and the recognition that this mainstay technology has been chosen to support U.S. Army operations is testament to the inherent safety, reliability and sustainability of the technology.”

*Effort sponsored by the U.S. Government under Other Transaction number W9132T209D001 between the Consortium Management Group, Inc., and the Government. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.

The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.


Notes to editors:

 1: For more information please contact Hywel Jarman in the CBI media office on +44 7718 483887. Visit

New generation of talented scientists join our industry

They are the future of the lead battery industry: highly-educated, motivated and brimming with new ideas and ambition. CBI spoke to three talented scientists, new to the lead battery industry, to find out more about their perceptions of the workplace and to hear their suggestions about how the industry can continue to attract the brightest and the best.

Max Parker, a PhD Student at Warwick University (United Kingdom); Miguel Rodríguez Gómez, PhD Student at INMA (Spain) and Grace Rocha, a Scientist at ITEMM (Brazil). From industry’s first impressions, learning new areas for innovation and crucial for our future, to the industry’s urgent effort to attract more young talents, they are the voices of a new generation inside the lead battery industry and here’s how they feel about it.

CBI : Tell us a bit about when you first joined this industry. What were your expectations ?

Max : « Batteries are an exciting area with a lot of areas to look at and lots of different things to analyse. Before joining the industry I didn’t really know what made one battery better than the next, why this one can charge faster than the other or why this one lasts longer than the other. Lead batteries are interesting because they have been around for such a long time, but there is still so much more to look at, and still so much more to learn. »

Grace : « To be really honest I didn’t think very much about the whole Lead Battery industry. I just wanted to be part of a great industry with a great social impact, which everybody near around knows Moura does to the city and to the state. Now, I am truly surprised with how much I enjoy working on the field. I see that there is a excitingopportunity for progress learning and development in every area of lead battery technology. »

Miguel : « I had just finished my masters degree and I was looking for research into something related to the energy or climate crisis. Energy storage is essential to be able to cover the off-peak hours of renewable production, and to move away from fossil fuels (which also have rapidly diminishing reserves). So, I started to look for research lines related to batteries. The truth is that I knew almost nothing about lead batteries, I thought there were only in cars and little else, but when I learned a little more and discovered that they can be used for many things and above all that recycling is very high, I decided to go for it.”

CBI : And now that you’ve been working for the industry, what’s your current perception ?

Max : « I think that there are lots of challenges ahead for the world of lead batteries. I would like to see more innovation to meeting these challenges, especially in the energy storage sector, which will be a big part of the future of lead batteries. Innovation is constant, and constantly necessary, because the use cases of lead batteries are changing. We need to be providing the new and innovative batteries of not just today but also the future. »

Miguel : « There is still much to discover and improve, and I think that since the materials of the batteries are cheap and abundant (but also safe and resistant), it will be very important in the years to come. On the other hand I think that production is too focused on the automotive industry. There is less and less demand for cars worldwide and energy is becoming more and more expensive, so I am convinced that the future is energy storage and back up systems. »

CBI : What can you learn from working with professionals who have been in the industry for a long time? What do you learn from each other in your projects ?

Max : « Professionals with a lot of experience have a wealth of knowledge and, but it is up to them to pass that on. I started from zero knowledge and having an experienced professional to provide guidance would have been of great help to ensure that I wasn’t misunderstanding things. Since being involved with the CBI, it has enabled contact with battery experts within companies and other universities. Some of them can share knowledge that is not as well known or written about in technical literature. And this leads to better experiments, better understanding and better development. »

Grace : « One of my favorite things about my job is the opportunity to network with everybody in the global lead battery chain. I’ve noticed that there is so much contribution on the field. For example, every time I have a call with a supplier, a partner, a specialist, I learn something new. And I feel they are always willing to help, they are so welcoming to answer my questions (and I do have lots of questions !). The Lead battery is not a technology that you learn through on college here in Brazil. So everything I know so far, I’ve learned from their experience. I’m  really glad to see how some of the ideas I’ve given actually worked and contributed with the development of the projects. »

CBI : What things would you like to happen in the industry to attract more talent ?

Miguel : « There are two main things to attract younger professionals. The first is to raise awareness of the lead battery industry, communicating its importance globally and showing that it is possible to have a fruitful career in it. The second is to communicate that it is a technology that can help with very important problems that especially (but not only) the younger generations are going to suffer, such as the climate crisis, the energy crisis and the resource crisis. For me personally, it is essential that 99% of the lead in batteries is recycled. I would not like to work with a polluting technology that ends up accumulating in landfills. I also believe that research lines focused on renewable energy storage and batteries for trains (which is the most efficient and less polluting transport, both for people and goods), should be encouraged. »

Max : « From my perspective in the world of academia, I would like to see more PhD funding, more internships, sponsorships and more university partnerships. Early career development and career paths can encourage people to join. Another option would be a summer job/internship/work experience in a battery company. Getting young people into the world of batteries requires investment in them, and guidance. With the right support and guidance a PhD student can produce some excellent research. But without the right funding they will go to do something else, or a PhD in another field. »

Grace : « I believe the answer is undergraduate students. Talking about the Brazil scenario, I would like to see the industry work more with universities. For example, investing in programs to develop new projects for undergraduate students. I think that would be a win/win situation : The students would have the opportunity to work on a real life problem and learn about the lead battery from experts ; and the company would have the opportunity to work with new researchers and  a new university department. This is a great way for students to be more prepared before they join a lead battery company.

I think even quick programs like a “Battery Marathon”, something like a Hackathon, would make students curios about the area and  starttheir development from college. Today, at ITEMM we are already making this approach. Recently we started the implementation of a research and innovation center in a technical college in the city, focused on developing young talent.»

CBI : Would you recommend the lead battery industry as a place to work for young scientists?

Miguel : « I recommend the lead battery industry to anyone interested in energy storage. It is a well-known technology but there is still a lot of room for improvement, and research is always interesting and fun. From my work I especially like the direct relationship with the industry, which is eager to generate more and more research projects. This year at ELBC, I have learned a lot and it has been a very rewarding experience to learn about the latest advances in research and also to see what the market trends are. »

Grace : « I do recommend. The more I work on the field the more I see there is still so much room for new ideas. It is a great time to be working in the battery field! Environmental care is one of the major concerns around the world, and batteries are key to this! One of the great things about the lead battery industry is that we are a safe technology, critical for energy storage, which helps reduce the global carbon footprint. Something people forget is that we are also an industry that has a true circular economy. »

Both Max and Miguel won this year’s CBI & EUROBAT Student Award, a great way to promote their work in the industry by bringing them to ELBC 2022 as speakers. In 2022, CBI also visited ITEMM in Brazil, where we had the chance to meet Grace and learn about her work at the Research and Development Department.

Interested about their work with CBI? Check out our blogs and videos:

CBI Project Update: Fraunhofer ISC and Wroclaw University to improve DCA using carbon additives

This European research collaboration aims to optimise lead battery performance for micro-hybrids. Researchers from Fraunhofer ISC and Wroclaw University are investigating the effect of carbon surface chemistry on the battery performance, and the goal is to understand which kind of surface chemistry is beneficial for improved charging and discharging behaviour for lead batteries.

Research projects like this one are proving to be relevant for wider scientific topics, such as low-emission vehicles, electrification and decarbonisation, as well as for carbon additive research.

According to Expert Group Manager from Fraunhofer ISC, Jochen Settelein, to follow the energy transition, batteries play a central role and lead batteries are safe, highly recyclable, produced at a low cost and the entire value chain exists within single countries or regions. By undertaking research and innovation into the lead battery technology, researchers are finding their way to adapt this « well-established technology » to the needs and requirements of the current energy transition.

Through this specific project, CBI is bringing together leading European researchers, scientists, and institutions to work towards a common goal, achieving CBI’s Technical Roadmap goals for the automotive sector, such as improving DCA.

Watch full video about this project here:

Electrification drives automotive lead battery enhancements

A key goal of CBI’s Technical Roadmap to improve the DCA of lead batteries, a technical parameter highly relevant for the automotive industry which encompasses lower emission vehicles such as start-stop, micro-hybrids and electric vehicles.

The CBI-funded project "Best practice of cell testing for EFB regarding DCA and high-temperature durability" delivers a significant improvement of DCA while also delivering uncompromised water consumption and improved corrosion durability.

With project partners from across the European value chain – universities TU Berlin and Fraunhofer ISC, car company Ford and battery manufacturer Moll in– this project encompasses the diverse players involved in Europe’s innovative lead battery industry.

As the automotive industry continues to move towards decarbonisation and electrification, new functions are required to increase safety and comfort.  “These trends impose growing demands on the energy storage devices used within automobiles. In order to take advantage of these opportunities and defend against competition from other technologies, the lead battery must continue to adapt and improve”, explains Sophia Bauknecht from TU Berlin.

This project in particular is essential for the growing start-stop and micro-hybrid market as “Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA) and water loss are critical factors for the efficiency and lifetime of start-stop batteries, and they need to be improved to stay competitive with other battery technologies”, says Prof. Dr Julia Kowal from TU Berlin.

“Changes in the material synthesis and preparation are needed for cost-efficient and faster material developments. Especially if it works to measure the DCA from a simple measurement of a reduced size cell, improvement of DCA can become much faster because only small cells are needed for material screening and then only the promising materials need to be scaled up to complete batteries”, she continued.

Lead batteries are a vital part of automotive applications, including SLI, start-stop and micro-hybrid applications. As the industry shifts towards electrification, this technology will continue to evolve and adapt in order to provide better safety and security features through secondary low-voltage EV batteries, EFB and AGM batteries.

Pre-competitive research projects underway through CBI’s Technical Program, like this one, not only help CBI to develop better practices for the industry, but also strengthen the collaborative work between automotive manufacturers and battery application specialists to continue the innovation push driven by CBI.

Watch Part II video of CBI's visit to TU Berlin

Interested in related topics ?

We are hiring a Research & Innovation Manager based in North Carolina – Position Closed

About the job

CBI Research and Innovation Manager Position

Location Durham, North Carolina preferred

Contract Initial contract 18 months

Hours 35 (full time)

Job Summary

The Consortium for Battery Innovation, a rapidly growing global battery research consortium, is seeking candidates for an 18-month position as CBI Research and Innovation to be based at its North American office in Durham, North Carolina.

The successful candidate will have excellent scientific knowledge, ideally including battery technologies, in addition to strong communications and interpersonal skills. The candidate is expected to efficiently manage a diverse portfolio of technical activities working independently.

Required Qualifications

Preferred Qualifications

Job Responsibilities

This role will involve regular North American, European and Asian travel.


The salary and benefits package will be commensurate with education and experience.

About CBI

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is a global innovation hub which supports cutting-edge pre-competitive research and promotion of innovation in lead battery technology. The consortium includes more than 100 member companies and organizations worldwide, consisting of lead producers, battery manufacturers, battery users, materials suppliers and research institutions.

The candidate would be joining a vibrant and dedicated team, with offices in Brussels, North Carolina, and London. More information can be found here.


Interested candidates should submit a CV and cover letter to by October 16, 2022.

We are committed to equal opportunities and creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. We welcome applicants regardless of ethnic origin, national origin, gender, race, color, religious beliefs, disability, sexual orientation or age.

Communications Manager for North Carolina Office – Position Closed

About the job

The Consortium for Battery Innovation, a rapidly growing global battery research consortium is looking to appoint an experienced communication manager to support our corporate communications programme, handling the full range of disciplines including external, digital and member/internal communications.

The role will report to the CBI Director, and is an opportunity to help deliver and influence a wide range of innovative communications projects and campaigns in Europe, the US, Asia and Africa. The post will be based from the CBI office in Durham, North Carolina.

Job Title Communications Manager

Location Durham, North Carolina preferred

Contract Initial contract 18 months

Hours 35 (full time)

Required Qualifications

Job Responsibilities

This role will involve regular North American travel and occasional European and Asian travel (15-25% time)


The salary and benefits package will be commensurate with education and experience.

About CBI

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is a global innovation hub which supports cutting-edge pre-competitive research and promotion of innovation in lead battery technology. The consortium includes more than 100 member companies and organizations worldwide, consisting of lead producers, battery manufacturers, battery users, materials suppliers and research institutions.

The candidate would be joining a vibrant and dedicated team, with offices in North Carolina, and London. More information can be found here.


Interested candidates should submit a CV and cover letter to by October 21, 2022.

We are committed to equal opportunities and creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. We welcome applicants regardless of ethnic origin, national origin, gender, race, color, religious beliefs, disability, sexual orientation or age.

Energy Storage, E-mobility & Environment are the focus of CBI’s co-organised event in India

CBI is co-organising an event with the India Lead Zinc Development Association (ILZDA), International Lead Association (ILA), International Lead Zinc Study Group (ILZSG), Indian Battery Manufacturers Association (IBMA) and the Recycling and  Environment  Industry Association of India (REIAI) to discuss the role of the lead industry in Energy Storage, E-mobility and Environment.

The International Conference on Lead & Lead Batteries will take place in New Delhi, India from 5-6 December 2022 and CBI’s Director, Dr Alistair Davidson, will talk about innovation for lead batteries and CBI's exciting new projects coming up involving energy storage systems.

This world class event is a great opportunity for stakeholders of the lead and lead battery industry to learn more about the latest technology developments and trends.

CBI North American Workshop (Durham, NC)

The next North American CBI Technical Workshop will be held at the Durham Convention Center, Durham, North Carolina from 14-16 November 2022.  The workshop will start at 2pm on the 14th November and finish at 1pm on the 16thNovember.

This workshop will cover:

Workshop only for CBI members. For more info about the event and CBI membership, please contact Anita Wright at

Alignment between Europe’s car industry and battery specialists through research

One of the highest priority goals set out in CBI’s Technical Roadmap is improving DCA –Dynamic Charge Acceptance for automotive lead batteries.

It’s a key area of work that CBI works with universities, research institutes, battery companies and car manufacturers around the world to tackle.

At TU Berlin, an ongoing research project has identified that on a battery level “single-pulse test for DCA and continuous overcharging for water consumption bear only weak correlation with results obtained under field conditions, particularly when most advanced (high DCA) battery technologies are addressed”, says Sophia Baucknecht, Graduate Research Scientist from TU Berlin.

As part of the research team made up of TU Berlin, Fraunhofer ISC, Ford and Moll, Sophia’s research aims for a better alignment and co-operation between car makers and battery application specialists.

With what aim? To establish best practice cell-testing for EFB regarding DCA and high-temperature durability.

These two metrics are vital for the enhanced performance of automotive lead batteries used across the global vehicle fleet, such as start-stop and micro-hybrids.

The research is increasing the efficiency of lead batteries by “finding out if lab-cell tests of DCA and water loss can be scaled up to a complete battery”, explains Prof. Dr Julia Kowal from TU Berlin.

If there’s higher efficiency and better charge acceptance, “less energy is lost during charging and braking and so the fuel consumption is reduced”, she continues. This is a critical step for automotive battery innovation towards decarbonisation and electrification for more fuel-efficient cars with a lower carbon footprint.

Watch the first video on CBI's visit to TU Berlin:

Interested in related topics?

ELBC 2022: CBI’S contribution to the future of the industry

The Global Lead Battery Innovation Conference and Expo (ELBC), co-organised for the first time by CBI, took place in Lyon, France (6-9 Sept).

As a warm-up to the main conference, CBI brought together lead battery industry experts from all over the world, to take part in:

On day one of ELBC, CBI’s Director (Dr Alistair Davison) set out a positive assessment of the opportunities for advanced lead batteries highlighting CBI’s roadmap, which charts a path to a new generation of batteries in a session dedicated to Markets and Trends.

And CBI technical experts, including Begüm Bozkaya, Technical Manager, outlined the CBI technical program with an insightful presentation focusing on improving energy storage systems and automotive batteries as key innovations in the industry.

To promote CBI’s Technical Roadmap and its work in driving innovation across the industry Dr Matthew Raiford, CBI’s Senior Technical Manager updated delegates. And in a major announcement, Dr Carl Telford impressed ELBC attendees with news of a 10 million Euro funding award for an innovative lead-battery powered microgrid project in Africa, brokered by CBI.

In his presentation entitled « Opportunities for Lead Batteries in Energy Storage Systems », Dr Telford spoke about the use of lead batteries for sustainable energy projects and presented for the first time this novel project funded by the European Commission that gathers lead batteries, renewables, and hydrogen.

As always at ELBC there were many networking opportunities, with delegates able to meet face to face for the first time in four years. The well-attended gala dinner took place at La Sucrière, and WGBI’s (Women in the Global Battery Industry) held its first meeting in Europe. This important initiative aims to bring more women to our industry and empower them through networking sessions, workshops, and mentoring opportunities.

CBI is very much looking forward to seeing all these fantastic attendees and delegates again at ELBC 2024 in Milan, Italy.

Watch the Event video:

Renewables, batteries and hydrogen: working together for the clean energy transition

The share of renewables for electricity generation by 2030 is expected to grow to 35%, and this global shift is relying on innovative technologies to harness this energy in clean, affordable and sustainable ways.

A big focus area for this shift is how to ensure that the clean energy transition fairly includes communities in parts of the world without reliable access to electricity or energy resources.

Responding to Europe’s Horizon call for funding proposals, a consortium of organizations spanning the energy, batteries, hydrogen academic and NGO sectors has joined together to develop a novel concept called LoCEL-H2.

Aiming to develop a sustainable, scalable, multi-vector energy solution to improve the lives of vulnerable communities, the project is based on renewables, battery storage and a novel hydrogen technology for cooking/fuel.

Low-cost, Circular, plug & play, off-grid Energy for remote Locations including Hydrogen, LoCEL-H2 is recognising the need for a fair energy transition across the globe and working to deploy pilots in two communities that have no access to reliable sources of energy.

Remote community in Africa (Ivory Coast).

This innovative concept includes battolyser hydrogen technology under development at Loughborough University, which will be used as cooking fuel for the communities where the modular off-grid energy solutions will be installed.

The future needs innovation. And it needs technologies to work together and complement each other to deliver innovative solutions for the clean energy transition. Bringing together different sectors, each with expertise in various technologies and energy solutions, LoCEL-H2 aims to ensure clean energy is paired with socioeconomic benefits for remote communities around the world.

See Press Release here.

Watch the first video about the project:

Newly-designed lead battery paired with hydrogen-generating technology offers power to off-grid communities


A project pairing advanced lead batteries with green hydrogen could transform the supply of clean, reliable energy storage in Africa and Asia, after the Consortium for Battery Innovation formed a partnership awarded Horizon Europe funding worth almost €10 million. 

The collaboration between organisations in the project - called LoCEL-H2 (Low-cost, Circular, plug & play, off-grid Energy for remote Locations including Hydrogen) – includes battery-makers, academia, national laboratories, component manufacturers and companies with experience of integration, microgrids and renewables.

The project will generate clean, reliable, sustainable energy for deployment in off-grid communities in regions such as Africa and Asia, using a lead-battery electrolyser – known as the battolyser – to support isolated communities who cannot connect to an electricity grid.

The battolyser is a novel, low-cost solution for producing clean hydrogen-powered cookers replacing firewood stoves. The International Energy Agency predicts that 2.5 billion people globally rely on firewood and stove-based cooking, predominantly performed by women in low-income countries. 

By installing battery energy storage, paired with renewable systems harnessing wind and solar power, this innovative project will enable reliable and low-cost electricity to be supplied to hard-to-reach communities.

Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager at CBI, said: “We are delighted to win Horizon Europe funding for such an innovative project. CBI is fortunate to have an incredible team of partners, enabling us to develop a truly new concept, featuring not only a specially designed lead battery, and a novel distributed microgrid, as well as the battolyser hydrogen technology. It’ll also be developed with social-science and business experts to ensure we can make a positive difference to those communities using the technology.”

The members of the partnership are CEAHoppeckeHollingsworth & VoseUNINALoughborough UniversitySunkofaUniversity of Gabes, SAS Réseaux Hydrogène Décarboné RHYDE, and LUMS

LoCEL-H2 advisory-board member Patrick Clerens - Managing Director of the CLERENS team that worked with CBI to develop the bid - said: “Combining long and short-term storage as well as integrating different energy vectors is the beauty of this project. We at CLERENS are very happy to have written this winning proposal and are sure that the results will further the integration of renewable energy for energy-deprived communities and energy islands, and therefore a reduction of fossil fuel use.”

Committed to research and innovation, this new European Commission funded project recognizes the innovative potential of advanced lead batteries and related technologies to usher in the renewable energy ambitions of communities around the globe.


Notes to editors:

About Consortium for Battery Innovation:

  1. The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:
  2. Dr Carl Telford, CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, is available for interview. For more information, please contact CBI’s media contact: Joana Coimbra,; +32 470 31 52 15

Battery electric vehicle charging buffers

The global market for electrified vehicles is expanding. To support this growth, robust vehicle charging infrastructure will be required. Indeed, recent studies suggest that between two and three million public chargers will be required in the European Union through 2030.

As part of an initial four-project funding push in Europe, CBI and members are developing a project concept focusing on the use of lead batteries in electric vehicle (EV) charging applications, primarily as a buffer solution. 

Rapid chargers can charge a standard BEV from 20% to 80% state of charge in approximately 30 minutes at a 50kW output power. However, they are restricted to areas where the supply can sustain a sudden 50kW load. In some cases, grid reinforcement will be required to enable installation rapid chargers and guarantee sufficient power is available. 

One solution to this significant issue is to deploy battery buffers. Battery buffered EV charging does not require disruptive and expensive grid reinforcement. 

There are also other benefits – it is possible to charge the batteries with renewable energy (for instance, solar or wind) to either provide primary power or augment an existing grid connection

CBI with our project partners will develop and deploy a lead-battery-buffered BEV charging solution for one or more specific scenarios, for instance sites in remote or limited-grid-capability locations.

Lead batteries offer some interesting technical advantages in applications where charger use can be infrequent. They are excellent at high state of charge (SOC). In comparison to other battery technologies, lead batteries are safe to use, as they contain water-based electrolyte, which does not present significant risks to customers or the environment. 

 Lead batteries also have the potential to reduce overall system overhead cost—by eliminating the need for balancing electronics, air conditioning & thermal management. In addition, the global lead battery industry is well positioned to capitalize, due to its sustainability & circularity, mature regulation, robust supply chain, and strong safety record.

We are in currently in discussion with vehicle OEMs, charging station operators, and out network of battery experts to bring this project to reality.

As part of an initial four-project funding push in Europe, CBI and members are developing a project concept focusing on the use of lead batteries in electric vehicle (EV) charging applications, primarily as a buffer solution. 

Rapid chargers can charge a standard BEV from 20% to 80% state of charge in approximately 30 minutes at a 50kW output power. However, they are restricted to areas where the supply can sustain a sudden 50kW load. In some cases, grid reinforcement will be required to enable installation rapid chargers and guarantee sufficient power is available. 

One solution to this significant issue is to deploy battery buffers. Battery buffered EV charging does not require disruptive and expensive grid reinforcement. 

There are also other benefits – it is possible to charge the batteries with renewable energy (for instance, solar or wind) to either provide primary power or augment an existing grid connection

CBI with our project partners will develop and deploy a lead-battery-buffered BEV charging solution for one or more specific scenarios, for instance sites in remote or limited-grid-capability locations.

Lead batteries offer some interesting technical advantages in applications where charger use can be infrequent. They are excellent at high state of charge (SOC). In comparison to other battery technologies, lead batteries are safe to use, as they contain water-based electrolyte, which does not present significant risks to customers or the environment. 

 Lead batteries also have the potential to reduce overall system overhead cost—by eliminating the need for balancing electronics, air conditioning & thermal management. In addition, the global lead battery industry is well positioned to capitalize, due to its sustainability & circularity, mature regulation, robust supply chain, and strong safety record.

We are in currently in discussion with vehicle OEMs, charging station operators, and out network of battery experts to bring this project to reality.

Watch the video about the project here

By Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager

Fundamental Research to Probe Pb’s Big Questions

Dr Paul Everill, Chief Technology Officer at Black Diamond Structures LLC, joins the ALBA mini blog series to share insight into the “Mechanisms and morphology limiting charge acceptance’ breakout session.


Battery development based on iterative component variation testing is the lead industry’s modus operandi. The tactic, however, is considered by some to be “foraging in the dark” since a company must be prepared to accept many wrong turns before a goal is met. That company must further accept that the process will need repeated every few years as new components hit the market. 

An efficient development plan includes a portion of fundamental research; an element of deep science that develops strong structure/function relationships more reliant on true understanding of the system rather than a transitory “1 + 1 = 3, I don’t know why, but I’ll take it for now” mentality.   

Six breakout sessions were held during the ALBA workshop

The Consortium for Battery Innovation encourages such understanding through precompetitive, collaborative research. One embodiment is the Automotive Lead Battery Advancement workshop (ALBA), conceived by Ford Motor Company’s Dr. Eckhard Karden, where some of the world’s leading battery scientists discuss lead’s deeper mechanistic and morphological questions:

Crucially, these topics are not academic novelties destined to be buried in the annals of an obscure journal. They are critical questions which, when answered, can direct battery developers to create the next generation of batteries smartly, “with the lights on”.

By Dr Paul Everill, Black Diamond Structures

Interested in related topics? Read some more of CBI's blogs:

Carbon additives for enhancing lead battery performance

The Graphene Council organized the “Commercialization Conference” and invited CBI's Technical Manager, Begüm Bokaya to speak at the event.

Carbon additives like graphene can increase the cycle life and charge acceptance of advanced lead batteries, which are critical for energy storage and automotive applications.

Learn more about the event and carbon additives for lead batteries in the video from the event.

Moving forward innovation in automotive batteries

Do you know how to properly measure the cold crank amps (CCA) or dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) using bench-top cells? 

I didn't until six years ago, not until the lead battery industry started a series of intensive workshops named DCA & Heat - now called the Automotive Lead Battery Advancements (ALBA) workshops. 

The ALBA workshops serve as the key forum for developing know-how and advancing research in 12 V lead batteries for automotive applications. One of the most consistent topics of the breakout discussions for ALBA has been based around cell-level testing, how to properly perform high-throughput research in a laboratory using bench-top small lead battery cells.

Cell-level testing breakout session at the ALBA Workshop

In the latest iteration of ALBA workshops held in Bergamo, Italy - organised by CBI in partnership with CENELEC and headed by Ford's Eckhard Karden - this specific breakout session on the evolution of cell testing and development was characterized by topics focused on:

Cell-level testing in laboratories is the fastest and highest throughput method for moving innovation in lead batteries, and this session pushed developments in DCA and high-temperature endurance, which are key performance indicators for micro-hybrid and auxiliary applications outlined in CBI's Technical Roadmap.

Keep an eye out for future blogs where colleagues from the global lead battery industry join CBI's blog to share insights from the other breakout sessions held during the ALBA workshops.

By Dr Matt Raiford

Energy storage trip to Malawi with Innovate UK

The role of battery energy storage in low and middle-income economies is increasingly important as a way to deliver clean, sustainable energy. 

For many it means access to reliable power supporting everything from schools and education to cooking and refrigeration. 

CBI is exploring opportunities to use lead batteries in energy storage systems such as microgrids, alongside a novel hydrogen-production technology (called The Battolyser) that also uses lead battery components.

Innovate UK invited CBI to visit Malawi, a country in Sub-Saharan East Africa, as part of its Energy Catalyst programme.

We joined start-ups, clean tech companies and connected with public and private energy organisations in Malawi, including the Malawi government, energy associations and the UK High Commission.

But, above all, we were able to learn first-hand the challenges and needs of local communities.

Designed to help companies find project partners who are applying for funding through Innovate-UK’s Energy Catalyst programme, the trip involved visiting existing microgrids and talking to local experts and communities. 

CBI is now working with Loughborough University and two Malawi-based energy solutions providers to develop a strong bid for Energy Catalyst Round 9.

This £1 million project to develop an energy storage solution including electrical energy storage and renewable hydrogen, will be submitted in August 2022.

Watch the video of the trip below

By Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager at CBI

CBI team visits Grupo Moura, leading battery manufacturer in Brazil

We are proud to have members highly committed to research and innovation, aiming to improve the role of lead batteries in applications for energy storage systems!

CBI visited Grupo Moura in Brazil to learn about the innovation underway happening there in battery technology and their research work building on the goals of CBI's Technical Roadmap.

Watch the project visit video below.

How energy storage targets will accelerate the rollout of battery solutions

ELBC Speaker Blog

As Europe strives for carbon neutrality by 2050, batteries have become an essential part of the energy storage mix. Patrick Clerens, Secretary General of the European Association for Storage of Energy (EASE), shares a preview of his ELBC presentation taking place on Thursday 8 September.

The announcement made in July 2021 by the European Commission, aiming to make the EU carbon neutral by 2050 with a 55% emission reduction goal by 2030 raises several issues regarding the feasibility of such ambitious objectives. The subsequent rapid uptake of renewables requires a parallel deployment of energy storage solutions not only to provide critical grid services needed to integrate wind and solar, but also to cope with rising curtailment and to ensure energy security at moments of low renewables production. However, the current growth of energy storage solutions does not mirror that of renewables uptake today and urgently needs to be addressed.

A necessary solution to this is setting energy storage targets that go in hand with existing renewables targets in the broader frame of a European strategy for energy storage. Such targets would be in line with the EU best practices as climate targets already exist today in many sectors successfully driving the energy transition. Furthermore, energy storage targets are already in place in a number of regions including California in the USA and Greece and Spain in Europe.

Thus, EASE considers the implementation of targets at EU level to be a key driver for the boosted uptake of new storage solutions by fostering innovation and investment. Among the different storage solutions currently on the market, batteries can greatly benefit from this incentive as they provide grid services which are critical to integrating variable sources of energy like solar or wind but also play a key role in daily energy shifting for both front-of-meter and behind-the-meter applications.

A range of lithium-based batteries already provide critical grid services today in Europe and also bring an answer to the ever-growing need for daily energy shifting in the residential segment. The incredible demand for energy storage indicates other domestic battery technologies in the EU, such as lead batteries, could and should play an even greater role in the energy storage battery mix.

Finally, the case of flow batteries and other hybrid derivatives is particularly interesting as it allows for longer-duration storage, an extremely valuable application which minimises curtailment and can help meet inter-seasonal peak demand when renewable production is low.

In conclusion, energy storage targets have the potential to enable innovation and further accelerate uptake of batteries which remain a trusted, proven technology and an indispensable part of the energy transition.

Innovative battery development underway at Advanced Battery Concepts

CBI visited member company Advanced Battery Concepts, based in Clare, Michigan, to find out more about their innovative advanced bipolar batteries.

Active in the growing energy storage sector, ABC undertakes work focusing on advancing battery technologies to meet the technical needs of renewable energy such as wind and solar.

The facility in Clare, Michigan is where ABC do all of the engineering, equipment development and processes to make a better battery - an advanced bipolar lead battery. As the most recent winner of BCI's Innovation Award, ABC are being recognized for their work in contributing to advances in the global lead battery industry.

Advanced lead battery technologies are critical in the national and global shift to incorporating more renewables onto the grid and delivering affordable, reliable energy.

Interested in related topics? Read some more of CBI's blogs:

Project update: Energy storage lead battery research at Warwick and Loughborough

Working with researchers at the University of Warwick and Loughborough University, this project aims to gain more knowledge on the best use of lead batteries, particularly in the growing area of battery energy storage which is crucial to the greater adoption of low carbon generation. 

In energy storage service batteries experience frequent charge and discharge cycles of varying depth. For a battery technology to be acceptable batteries must retain a substantial fraction of their initial charge storage capability over many cycles – hence the challenging target set by the CBI of 5,000 cycles. 

Growing energy storage demand is driving increased need for batteries, and batteries with enhanced performance. CBI’s new Technical Roadmap is answering the call for better batteries by identifying key ways in which advanced lead batteries can maximize their performance for energy storage systems.

Lead batteries have the key benefits of safety and recyclability, and when you are talking about home storage units, fire safety becomes a huge concern. Lead batteries are far safer than many other chemistries and this project, using batteries with metal cases and ensuring that the correct operating window is maintained, adds extra confidence to the already excellent safety record of lead batteries.

The kind of collaborative research underway at the University of Warwick and Loughborough University is just what the lead battery industry needs to deliver higher-performing batteries and continue the innovation momentum of the technology. 

Energy storage systems require safe, sustainable and reliable batteries, and lead batteries with higher cycle life and reduced system cost will be more attractive for all types of energy storage applications.

CBI European Workshop

This European workshop will provide an update on CBI on-going research projects, government funding initiatives and our communications and marketing program and other standards work.  It will also discuss our new RFP, and newly submitted project proposals.  This will be held on 14th July from 9am-5pm and include a networking dinner on the evening of the 13 July.

Click here to register.

Automotive Lead Battery Advancements (ALBA) Workshop (formerly DCA & Heat Workshop)

As the next iteration of successful workshop held over the last few years, this year's DCA & Heat workshop has a new name and will be held from 11am-5.30pm on the 12th July, and from 8.30am-3pm on the 13th July, and will include a networking dinner in the evening of the 12th July.

This year’s event, Automotive Lead Battery Advancements (ALBA) Workshop, will address the following topics:

Compact plenary talks will expose up-to-date material on each of the topics to all participants. In subsequent break-out sessions, each participant will have the opportunity to discuss in depth 2 of the topics and plan collaborative work streams associated with them.

Download the draft ALBA Workshop schedule. (updated July 9, 2022)

CBI will host a Battery Academy on 11-12 July and also hold its European Technical Workshop on 13-14 July all at the same location.

Click here to register.

We are looking forward to meeting you in person this summer in Italy!

CBI Battery Academy

This Academy will provide the opportunity for new colleagues joining the lead and lead battery industry to learn more about key fundamentals of the technology.  In lectures delivered by leading industry experts, and complemented by case studies, working groups and panel discussions, CBI’s Battery Academy will be held from 11am-5pm on the 11th July and 8am-11am on the 12th July, and include a networking dinner on the night of the 11th July.

Topics will include 

Speakers will include Boris Monahov, Mark Stevenson, Geoffrey May, Eckhard Karden and Matt Raiford.

Click here to register.

Amara Raja, leading Indian battery manufacturer joins global research organization


Supporting advanced lead battery research and innovation, the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) has welcomed its newest member - and largest Indian battery manufacturer in membership - Amara Raja.

Headquarted in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, Amara Raja Batteries Limited (ARBL) is a technology leader that has been instrumental in the development and production of advanced lead battery technologies since it’s establishment in 1985. 

Working in both the automotive and industrial sectors, Amara Raja is a leading supplier for industries including OEM, UPS, telecoms and solar energy storage in India as well as countries in the Indian Ocean rim. Demand is on the rise for batteries in India, forecast to grow to 260 GWh annually by 2030.

Partnering with industry, research institutes and universities across the globe, CBI drives pre-competitive research to deliver the next generation of advanced lead batteries with enhanced performance to meet future market demand. 

Ambitious targets are underway in India’s renewable energy storage sector, with goals of adding 300 GW of renewables by 2030. The need for high-performing, sustainable and innovative lead batteries is more critical than ever to support this clean energy transition which will represent a 20% year-over-year growth in solar and wind capacity

CBI’s Director, Dr Alistair Davidson, said: “We are excited to have Amara Raja on board as our newest and largest Indian lead battery manufacturer. This regional market is extremely important for lead batteries, particularly in energy storage, and we’re looking forward to working with them to really drive innovation in the technology.”

ARBL Chief Technology Officer, Mr. Jagadish M, said, “We are excited to be part of this consortium. We look forward to leveraging this opportunity to dominate the energy sector with innovative products. By working together, we can improve our technical capabilities and explore many energy-related applications.”

ARBL Executive Director, Mr. Harshavardhana Gourineni, said: “We are honored to be a part of this consortium, which brings together, and shares innovations and cutting-edge technology. We continue to be delighted to engage with businesses that complement our strengths and help generate value in our growth areas. This relationship will provide us with space for new generation energy storage and global corporate expansions.”

CBI organizes high-impact technical workshops for its membership throughout the year in North America, Europe, China and, for the first time this year, India. These events bring together leading global battery experts to stimulate technical discussion about the latest research and developments in the technology. The meetings also identify key innovation pathways for future advanced batteries to delve into the significant untapped potential of lead battery technology.


Notes to editors

About the Consortium for Battery Innovation

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:

About Amara Raja

Amara Raja Batteries Limited is an Energy and Mobility enterprise and one of the largest manufacturers of energy storage products for both industrial and automotive applications in the Indian battery industry.

In India, Amara Raja is the preferred supplier to major telecom service providers, Telecom equipment manufacturers, the UPS sector (OEM & Replacement), Indian Railways and to the Power, Oil & Gas, among other industry segments. Amara Raja’s industrial battery brands comprise PowerStack®, AmaronVolt® and Quanta®. The Company is a leading manufacturer of automotive batteries under the brands Amaron® and PowerzoneTM, which are distributed through a large Pan-India sales & service retail network.

The Company supplies automotive batteries under OE relationships to Ashok Leyland, Ford India, Honda, Hyundai, Mahindra & Mahindra, Maruti Suzuki, and Tata Motors. The Company’s Industrial and Automotive Batteries are exported to countries in the Indian Ocean Rim.

Using neutron diffraction to improve the lifetime of energy storage lead batteries

There are clear goals from the EU to decarbonize and decrease the reliance on fossil fuels. Understanding the fundamental contributors to lead battery failure at a molecular level will enable stronger cycling performance of lead batteries in all applications, such as microhybrid and energy storage applications. Batteries in these applications serve as the main tool to decarbonize the European utility grid and automotive fleet, the most important areas underpinning the EU Green Deal.

The main objective of this project is to analyze the different electrochemical processes and reactions that take place inside the battery electrodes during operation. To this end, CBI, INMA, and Exide Group are using, for the first time, in-operando neutron scattering techniques by placing real operating cells, built using the same components as in the factories, in a neutron instrument and collecting diffraction patterns and images from inside the cell, with both spatial and time resolutions, during the charge and discharge processes.

Also using neutrons because its penetration capacity in matter is much higher than that of other particles, as X-rays or electrons, used until now for battery analyses. In this way, it's possible to study real thick cells, about one centimeter in thickness, in real operating conditions.

This is an approach never used before in lead cells.

INMA's laboratory

Learn more about this project through our project update video:

Celebrating Earth Day

Every year since 1970 people all over the globe celebrate Earth Day to support the dialogue and actions taken towards the preservation of our planet, its environment, sustainability, and its future.

Today at CBI, we want to celebrate this day too by sharing some of the key ways in which the potential of our technology is being unlocked through research and innovation, to contribute to the goals of Earth Day. 

Lead batteries are active in this space in two key ways: low-emission mobility and renewable energy storage.

One of our main research focuses at CBI is to expand the technology’s performance in the automotive industry, from start-stop technology to low voltage EV batteries. 

We're working with leading research institutes, battery manufacturers, and car companies to drive forward this progress to improve dynamic charge acceptance (DCA). You can read more about these projects here

Renewable energy storage also has a major role in the current energy transition across the globe, delivering clean, reliable power. Some of the recent examples we've added to our interactive map of energy storage projects, which showcases our members in all regions of the world providing advanced lead battery storage, are below:

This is just a snapshot of how the global lead battery industry is underpinning the clean energy transition in diverse sectors, from science and safari to manufacturing.

Innovation is key to sustainability. Technology progress is supported by fundamental scientific research into the chemistry, to help make better batteries, and CBI’s 2022 Request for Proposals is calling on industry, scientists, and researchers to join us on this innovation journey.

From energy storage systems using renewable energy to cutting-edge research developments, these are some of the highlights of our recognition of the importance of Earth Day, every day. As our mission to support the energy transition grows, CBI will continue to work with the global lead battery industry to ensure lead batteries are ready to meet future opportunities

ELBC: registration open, technical program launched


Delegate registration is now open for ELBC in Lyon, France, between 6-9 September, with a packed technical program and pre-conference events. 

The much-anticipated ‘Batteries for the Future’ conference program - with expert technical sessions on automotive and energy storage systems as well as market insights – also includes, for the first time, a workshop on Lead Batteries in Electric Vehicles and a Battery Academy.

Up to 1000 attendees are expected to visit the event, which takes place at the congress centre in Lyon, and is co-organised by the International Lead Association and Consortium for Battery Innovation.  

Keynote speakers providing their business insights include East Penn President and CEO Chris Pruitt and Stefan Stübing, President and CEO at Exide Group. Leading analysts will survey the market landscape including Christophe Pillot (Avicenne Energy), Neil Hawkes (CRU), Nick Starita (Hollingsworth & Vose) and Ray Kubis (Gridtential). In addition, there is a strong technical program of 50+ speakers on all aspects of lead battery innovation.  

Dr Andy Bush, Managing Director of ILA, said: “ELBC is organised by the industry, for the industry and we are delighted to once again hold this event in person. As well as the respected technical program, we have new sessions including a workshop on lead batteries in EVs. And we’re introducing a battery academy for the first time which is aimed at anyone who would like to know more about the wide range of lead battery applications and technologies available. 

“Alongside the conference we will host a substantial expo with manufacturers and suppliers from across the industry. And as always at ELBC the networking and business opportunities go hand-in-hand with the impressive plenary sessions and technical program.”

Dr Alistair Davidson, Director of CBI, added: “Our technical program is always a highlight of ELBC, and this year more than ever we have a fantastic line-up of speakers and experts from across the world. The program will provide a deep dive into the latest innovation and developments across the industry.

“The program spans three days of interactive sessions and presentations, covering the diverse applications of advanced lead batteries, from the automotive sector and emerging EV applications, to renewable and utility energy storage, fundamental science and motive power sectors.”

The ELBC opening reception will take place in the conference’s amphitheatre, while the impressive surroundings of La Sucriere, a renovated sugar warehouse on the banks of the Rhone River, is the venue for the ELBC gala dinner.

To register for the conference, and find out more, visit


Note to editors: 

About International Lead Association

ILA is the only association representing lead producers globally, working to create a sustainable future for lead. Members of the association produce lead from mining, smelting, refining and recycling. For more information visit; +44 207 833 8090.

To contact ILA’s media office:

About Consortium for Battery Innovation

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:

To contact CBI's media office:

CBI Battery Academy at ELBC

CBI is organizing a Battery Academy at ELBC on 5-6 September.

Registration for the event is now open for ELBC delegates.

Bids sought for new battery research projects


DURHAM, N.C. – March 23, 2022 In a new research request for advanced batteries, the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) has launched a call for proposals focused on innovative applications of the technology. 

Targeting markets such as electric vehicles (EVs), energy storage systems (ESS) and motive power applications, CBI’s new RFP has identified key areas for growth opportunities for the advanced lead battery market. 

Calling on the industry to submit research proposals to enhance batteries in critical ways such as cycle life, service life, charge efficiency and operational cost, the RFP will guide CBI’s new Technical Program and next round of funded projects.

With growth expected across all lead battery applications – 60% of the global rechargeable battery market is represented by lead batteries – the potential for innovation in the technology remains a significant drive for CBI and its research partnerships worldwide with members, governments and national laboratories. 

Dr Matthew Raiford, Senior Technical Manager of CBI, said: “Last year, we launched our new Technical Roadmap and that document has predicted where we expect to see strong market growth in the next decade for lead battery technology. This is driving our research call to ensure advanced lead batteries can continue to develop and innovate to help societies meet ambitious decarbonization and electrification targets.”

For motive power applications, the focus is lowering the total cost of ownership by increasing cycle life, recharge time and producing maintenance-free batteries.

For energy storage, improving cycle life, calendar life and overall efficiency while reducing acquisition and operating costs are the priority. 

And for the automotive sector, encompassing both conventional cars and electric vehicles, the key areas are improving high-temperature performance, charge efficiency and lifetime, while ensuring recent improvements in dynamic charge acceptance, cold crank amps and water loss are maintained.

CBI’s RFP is open for submissions until Friday 20 May with more information on the full list of topics and guidelines for proposals available here


Notes to editors

About the Consortium for Battery Innovation

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:

Monbat – Powering climate change research in Antarctica

Powering climate change research in Antarctica

Download the full case study

View CBI's Interactive Map of energy storage case studies

South Shetland Isles, Antarctica

On Livingston Island, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago, a remote Antarctic research station is backed by advanced lead battery energy storage. 

Conducting climate change research since 1988, scientists at the Bulgarian Antarctic Base Bulgarian Antarctic Base "St. Kliment Ohridski, study geology, mineral resources, glacier movements and the marine ecosystem.

“Securing the BESS for the Bulgarian Antarctic Base is an honour and a great test-on-the-edge for our VRLA batteries.” 

Monbat Group
Monbat's advanced lead batteries are used for energy storage at the Bulgarian research station in Antartica

Technical Specification

Energy demand and consumption has steadily increased at the research station, requiring additional battery energy storage to support the needs of the scientists.

With a photovoltaic power plant deployed in 2008, the research station paired it with a battery energy storage system (BESS) using Monbat’s advanced lead batteries.

The BESS is used to balance power grids and save surplus energy, whilst also providing uninterruptible power despite adverse weather conditions. 

Solar power is stored in the advanced lead batteries, a reliable and robust solution withstanding extreme weather conditions

Capable of operating in extremely low Antarctic temperatures of -38°C, Monbat’s VRLA lead batteries are chosen for their reliability, resilience and performance.

Battery energy storage using advanced lead batteries also facilitates the integration of more renewable energy sources into the electricity systems on site. 

This adds an additional level of sustainability to the project as advanced lead batteries are recycled at rates of close to 100%. 

Technical Summary

Overall capacity12 kW
Number of batteries104 48V 90Ah batteries, connected in 26 strings
Battery specificationVRLA, AGM 
Use caseMicrogrid
Available stored energy120 kWh

About the Company 

Currently the 4th largest lead battery producer in Europe and No. 1 in the Balkans, Monbat operates under two main business segments – lead batteries and Li-ion high-power solutions. 

Monbat applies a flexible vertically integrated model, synergistically uniting recycling and producing of lead, lead alloys and other raw materials, manufacturing and trading of batteries.

Monbat has a worldwide presence in over 70 countries and more than 20 different applications and industries.

Asantys Systems – Eco-safari in Tanzania

Eco-safari fuelled by sunlight and batteries

Download the full case study

View CBI's Interactive Map of energy storage case studies

Grumeti Hills, Tanzania

In ten safari lodges in the Serengeti, Tanganyika Expeditions is powering their operations using solar energy and lead battery storage.

Disconnected from the Tanzanian utility grid, the safari lodges are provided with a self-sufficient electricity supply generated from sustainable solar power. 

A project that demonstrates the great potential for a climate-friendly mobility transition in Africa through used vehicle conversion to e-drive and battery powering by solar electricity.

Johannes Germ, Managing Director, Asantys Systems GmbH
The energy storage system at the eco-safari in Tanzania features solar panels

Technical Specification

The energy storage systems, developed by system Integrator Asantys Systems and energy consultant Olk, features:

Providing solar power around the clock for the accommodations and laundry facilities, it is also used to warm up shower water for guests. 

In an added element of sustainability, the eco-safari has switched its vehicle fleet from diesel to electric vehicles. Both the safari and service vehicles are then charged using the SMA stand-alone grid supplied with solar power.

The solar batteries used to store the energy for the lodges are fully recyclable at end-of-life, and provide a high-performing, safe and sustainable solution.

The lead-SLA solar batteries store the energy generated from solar power

Technical Summary

Overall capacity2 x systems 55 kWp  with SMA Sunny Tripower PV inverters 
Battery specificationLead-SLA batteries 
Available stored energy2 x 220 kWh battery storage systems 
Inverters2 x Multicluster Box 6 each with 6 battery inverters Sunny Island 8.0
The eco-safari electric vehicles are charged using solar power

About the Company 

As a system integrator, Asantys Systems specializes in optimally designing solar systems for energy requirements, offering high-quality system components at the best prices and implementing project implementation including logistics, installation and project management cost-effectively and quickly. 

With these services, we position ourselves as a specialized partner for project developers, plant operators and providers of financing concepts.

The role of sci-comms in innovating and diversifying the industry

Following this year’s International Women’s Day, we’ve interviewed some of the faces behind the communication strategies of our industry. People who work daily to demonstrate the effort of an industry towards climate goals, such as decarbonisation and electrification, while sharing messages of the industry’s work to achieve sustainable targets, science progress and innovation.

These are the professionals who are responsible for the communications of a long-standing industry, so essential in the digital world. They deal with a considerable amount of daily information and they’re able to transform the complex world of science to policymakers, business people and citizens in dynamic and understandable ways. And guess what? Many of them are women!

But why is it that the role of comms has become more important than ever? And what can these experts in the field tell us about the relevance of “sci-comms”? 

According to Tammy Stankey, Director of Communications at The Doe Run Company, innovation in comunication is key in order to be modern and relevant, whilst for Fareha Lasker, Communications Manager at the International Lead Association, these are very exciting times to work for the lead and lead battery industry:

"The industry presents a dream messaging scenario­ — huge market demand combined with a key role for our technologies in the clean future of the planet means it’s a time of obvious and great opportunity. We know that the next 10 years will see unprecedented growth in demand for battery energy storage to support a clean energy future and that advanced lead batteries have a key role to play in applications which will enable rapid electrification of our economy and society".

The group agreed that it’s "essential" for investment in the industry’s comms departments, and as Niamh Owen-McLaughlin, Communications and Digital Manager at CBI, explained, it’s about telling a story of an experienced industry that has witnessed not only evolution but also "innovation, progress and research" and it’s also important to share the "importance of the technology" for the future :

"Without comms, a lot of our stakeholders would never hear the story of innovation that we have to tell, and would never think of advanced lead batteries as a technology which is used all over the world for clean energy storage, for vehicles, for low-emission vehicles and in so many more applications".

Tammy gave an example on how a strong comms department brings even more success to the industry :

"When I first became involved in the industry I was invited to sit on the Public Affairs and Marketing committee of what was then the ALABC (now CBI). As a communications professional it was obvious to me that our industry was suffering from a lack of visibility. Our committee pushed hard to have demonstration projects promoted at high-profile events such as The Battery Show. The greater visibility that these projects received, the more interest was created among companies to fund basic science research and demonstration projects. The effort is paying off, as we now see government agencies (such as the U.S. Department of Energy) proactively reaching out to our industry to identify the greatest opportunities for research and technology development to support the Energy Storage Grand Challenge".

But how is comms driving innovation in the industry?

"The more that we can communicate the innovation underway in lead batteries, driven by the efforts of the global lead battery industry, the more we can increase funding and opportunities for further research and development. We are showing that our technology is not one of the past but instead one that is currently used all over the world in so many diverse and critical applications, and that we’re confident through continued research that the innovation journey lead batteries are on has only just begun", Niamh continued.

Considering the amount of legislative and regulatory proposals in the pipeline around the world designed to improve and accelerate sustainable technologies, "by communicating the innovation in lead and lead batteries across many of these – from lead cables enabling wind power to lead batteries supporting EVs – we are ensuring our industries stand out among those. Communicators across our industry are successfully bringing together the right influencers across policymakers, regulators and industry to understand and appreciate that we are part of the innovative solutions to achieving their low carbon goals. In keeping us at the front of their minds, we’re ensuring we remain at the heart of the energy transition", completed Fareha.

Progress in the industry should also target goals of diversity within the workforce, as Lisa Dry, Vice President of Strategic Communications - Battery Council International and Essential Energy Everyday, explained :

"BCI’s leadership has recognized that the lead battery and recycling industry needs to reflect a more diverse and inclusive culture. One step in that direction is the new Women in the Global Battery Industry professional organization to help women in the industry grow their careers. Studies show that women are better employees than men in several categories including organizational development and coaching talent. At a time when the competition for employees is fierce, it’s critically important to help current employees reach their maximum potential."

There’s clearly a common desire to see more women working for the industry and reaching leadership positions, but to attract and retain bright minds we must be willing to reach out to a more diverse audience, something that the industry is very open to do:

"I have seen firsthand how open and welcoming the industry is to others and I have personally benefited from the comradery of the industry by getting involved. This has allowed me access to participate in various committees and even the executive committees of associations. I encourage other woman to look for opportunities to share their expertise and build their network in this industry", added Tammy.

Sci-comms is critical to demonstrate the innovation underway in our industry, and these communicators are responsible for sharing accurate messages in times where misinformation is a trend. This is our tribute to each and every professional behind a strategic comms role in the scientific field, where diversity is still not a reality.

Project update: Energy boost – automotive EU battery research


Best practices of cell testing for EFB regarding DCA and high-temperature durability




24 months


The automotive industry understands that advanced lead batteries have much improved dynamic charge acceptance (DCA), a key technical parameter for hybrid vehicles. However there have been concerns about side-effects caused by high DCA. Research has demonstrated that these side-effects are related to the way batteries are tested, and not how they actually perform in the car when on the road, in 'real-world' conditions.

This research project with Ford, TU Berlin, Fraunhofer ISC and Moll Batterien aims to create synergy between cell-level testing and ‘real-world’ field tests, to demonstrate that advanced lead batteries can meet all the OEM requirements for current and future micro-hybrids. This growing market is predicted to represent 80% of new cars in Europe by 2030, and provides higher fuel efficiency combined with reduced CO2 emissions in vehicles.

By improving cell-level test methods, this project will allow material developers and battery manufacturers to improve the performance of automotive lead batteries.

This collaboration involving Ford, a leading automotive company, means that the most innovative and highest-performing lead batteries will be available for future vehicles. 


Project update

At Fraunhofer ISC, the work in the last six months involved weight loss and gas flow measurements on 2 V laboratory cells by applying different overcharge tests under various conditions. It is very crucial to determine accurate weight losses in small laboratory cells to perform high temperature tests, as these cells differentiate significantly from commercial automotive batteries.

At TU Berlin, 2 V laboratory cells containing different cell layouts were extracted from selected 12 V automotive batteries (EFB type) to perform DCA and water consumption tests. Both static overcharge test and new key life test (nKLT) were scaled down to 2 V cell-level. Important findings including correlation between charge balance and weight loss were concluded.

This project gives a comprehensive picture of water loss, corrosion and dynamic charge acceptance. These best practice cell-level evaluation methods can possibly be utilized by material developers and battery manufacturers to improve the performance of lead batteries. By doing this, a significant acceleration of R&D towards the challenging KPIs stated in the CBI technical roadmap can be facilitated.

View the project update video:

View the project press release

10 December 2020

Europe’s new energy mix supported by batteries

Renewable energy is a cornerstone of Europe’s shift to a decarbonised future. And one of the technologies acting as a driving force for the increasing deployment of renewable energy projects is advanced lead batteries. 

Batteries are key for storing energy generated through renewable sources such as wind and solar, a critical part of making this new energy mix more reliable. In Norway, electrification efforts are intensifying particularly around the use of renewables energy, and CBI member WaveTech Group, Inc. has recently announced their partnership with OneCo’s efforts to streamline the process.

Advanced lead batteries have been innovating in new ways in recent years, driven by the work of the global industry and CBI to ensure the technology continues to play a significant role in decarbonisation and electrification aims. Some of the key ways outlined in CBI’s Technical Roadmap specifically focused on the energy storage sector is for increased cycle life and energy efficiency for advanced lead batteries.

BEAT product(s), that houses WaveTech's Crystal Control Technology, being tested on lead batteries

The partnership with OneCo is based on WaveTech’s unique solutions, offering Crystal Control Technology (CCT) for lead batteries resulting in enhanced performance and longer lifetime for use in the energy storage sector. The technology is based on applying a specifically modulated periodic signal during charge, and closely monitoring the state of charge and state of health of the battery. The innovation is used currently in the telecoms sector, where lead batteries globally represent the majority of battery demand. WaveTech’s R&D department is currently optimizing the technology for doubling the lifetime and tripling the energy throughput of the batteries for this and other stationary energy storage applications. 

The benefits of Crystal Control Technology help WaveTech to charge the batteries faster and more efficiently. The power pulses sent to the battery enhance the mobility of ions in the electrolyte and optimize crystallization in the positive and negative plates of the battery. The surface of the plates remains active, sulfation is slowed down, and the highly porous microstructure of the lead and lead dioxide crystals formed in the active materials is kept sustainable. This results in a range of benefits including better battery power performance and longer life, reduction in charge energy consumption and hence lower CO2 footprint of battery operation. 

Smart lead batteries are behind safer electric vehicles

For most EVs, low-voltage lead batteries (also known as auxiliary batteries) are a key component of the multi-battery system present in the vehicle. In combination with the high-voltage battery system, low-voltage EV lead batteries ensure the vehicle can function and provide power for critical safety features.

In 2021, a CBI blog on the critical role of lead batteries for EV safety was published by the World Economic Forum(WEF), demonstrating the importance of the technology for this application which is driving policy changes across Europe and the globe.

You can read about the various ways that 12 V lead batteries are powering critical safety functions on-board EVs here, but I want to look at some of the ways this market is proving so important for the global lead battery industry and how our industry is innovating to meet evolving technical demand.

Across Europe’s 27 member states, it is predicted that 50% of newly registered vehicles by 2030 will be plug-in hybrid EVs and full EVs, and the importance of lead batteries for these vehicles to provide safe and reliable baseline of power will only grow in significance.

By 2030, it is predicted that in Europe, 50% of new vehicles will be plug-in hybrid EVs and full EVs.

As a battery technology, lead batteries provide a reliable storage device with an inherent safe chemistry and a sustainable closed-loop raw material cycle, with almost 100% recycled at end-of-life in Europe and North America. The unique benefits of the technology will be important to meet growing consumer expectations for safety, comfort and connectivity. 

The advanced lead batteries used for these low-emission vehicles are continuing to innovate and develop based on the evolving needs of the market. 

As more advanced driver assist sensor systems like lidar-, radar- and optical AI- systems are added to vehicles with the goal to enable autonomous vehicle functionality at level 3 and above, there will be an even greater reliance and predictability on the low-voltage battery.

An integrated part of the power train, the storage system needs to self-diagnose potential issues in the battery before they happen and anticipate required maintenance or replacement. The storage system also needs to provide emergency power critical for EV and autonomous vehicles and to be capable of communicating this capability to the drive train.

So the role of the lead battery in an EV is changing from an engine-starting application, to the new low-voltage storage systems for the specific duty cycle of an auxiliary battery system.

All of these elements are driving the innovation underway in low-voltage lead batteries to ensure the highest performing lead batteries are provided for the automotive industry. 

Clarios, a global leader in advanced lead battery technology, has announced a smart AGM battery system which will sense, diagnose and communicate in real-time the condition of the battery in an electric vehicle. This functionality will be combined with the ability to support safety critical functions as well as anticipating required maintenance or replacement.

Smart AGM battery by Clarios.

Clarios’ newest innovation is seizing the opportunities present in the growing global market for electric vehicles and is due to debut in the next two to three years.

This innovative battery is just one example of the way in which our industry is innovating to meet future market opportunities based on the global shift to a cleaner, low-carbon future.

By Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios

Interested in related topics? Read some more of CBI's blogs:

Europe’s innovative battery: Part 2

As Europe stives for energy independence and a transition to a low-carbon future, the role of batteries underpinning this shift continues to grow in importance. 

Following on from the wide-ranging innovation featured in part 1 of Europe’s innovation blog series, part 2 begins with insight into the collaborative “AddESun” project. Launched in 2017, researchers led by the Fraunhofer Institute and part funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, aim to safeguard the future of lead batteries.

With goals including more sustainable production, improved charging behaviour, longer service life and higher power density, the research focused on researching new additives and their effect on battery properties. Fundamental research such as this complements the work underway on the industry driven by CBI’s Technical Roadmap to ensure the role of lead battery technology in contributing to Europe’s strong battery industry. 

Moving to the University of Brno in the Czech Republic, scientists have been active for many years in researching advanced lead batteries through additives, the influence of temperature on impedance changes and effects on lead electrodes.

Battery monitoring during operation is a key area of research underway within the lead battery industry, aiming to uncover new insights into the technology with the ultimate aim of enhancing various battery performance metrics such as state-of-charge and state-of-health to ensure longer service life.

Published last year, innovative work underway at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, led by Dr Boris Shirov and Dr Iliyan Popov, features a lead-air battery aiming to improve energy performance. The technology shows that the positive electrode in a conventional lead battery can be replaced with a gas diffusion electrode (GDE), increasing the specific energy of the system by up to 52%.

Batteries cycling equipment in the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences lab

At the French research institute of CEA-Liten, a new non-destructive and non-intrusive characterization techniques was proposed by researchers for lead batteries. Consisting of installing two piezoelectric transducers on the surface of a battery and studying the transport of ultrasonic acoustic waves, the research obtained an accurate and direct estimation of the state of charge and could be used for better management of advanced lead batteries. 

In the University of Southampton, the advancement of lead batteries has been a key topic for researchers, particularly focused on redox flow lead technology. Relevant to utility-scale energy storage and load levelling applications, this research demonstrates the continued need for innovation amongst all battery technologies to meet heightened demand for reliable energy storage. 

With the aim to accelerate the transition to sustainability and decarbonisation, the FAAM Research Center, the R&D aim of Seri Industrial S.p.A. in Italy, this collaborative program focuses on the development of lead technologies, amongst other types of batteries. 

A multi-disciplinary project led at Imperial College London looks to the end-of-life stage of lead batteries, focusing on the design of energy-reducing, economically competitive, electro-hydrometallurgical strategies for recycling. One of the biggest advantages of lead batteries is the end-of-life recycling rate of almost 100% in Europe, and Imperial’s work is focusing on new ways to enhance the sustainability of the process. 

Lead battery research is far-reaching in Europe, both in scope and results. But there always remains room for more innovation, so keep an eye out for the release of CBI’s new Request for Proposals that will outline the areas of research we’re looking for to drive our next Technical Program. 

Women in science: driving innovation and fundamental to progress

In the words of the United Nations, both science progress and gender equality are fundamental achievements to reach the SDG Goals as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

For this to become a reality, it is crucial to demonstrate the importance of having more women working in fields of science, and most of all to create conditions that empower and facilitate women to work in a sector traditionally dominated by men.

In 2015, the UN General Assembly declared February 11 as the “International Day of Women and Girls in Science”, as a way of fostering change in this field and turning these below stats around:

UN data from 2021

In this case, and like in any other sector, combining the strengths of all genders in the workplace can only create more space for better ideas, innovation, and progress in science.

Why is it so important to value women in science, but also in our industry in particular?

To better understand these issues and to see how they can be applied in our own industry, CBI spoke to four women who work in the global lead battery industry as researchers: Sibel Eserdağ (R&D Division Manager in Inci GS Yuasa), Sophia Bauknecht (Engineer at Technische Universität Berlin), Begüm Bozkaya (Technical Manager at CBI) and Maria Penafrancia Roma (Technical Collaboration Leader at Advanced Battery Concepts).

The idea was to show their perspectives, as women who work in mostly male environments, but more than that, to demonstrate why they are still working for the industry, why they believe their talent is crucial for it and why do they invite more women to join them in this challenging world.

According to the previously mentioned data, “women represent only 33.3% of all researchers” but considering the technological growth and the urge for progress and innovation in science and research, our group of four women agreed that is absolutely “crucial” to have more female researchers. Not only because of gender equality issues, but also due to the fact that it can bring more diversity of thinking which can only enrich the working groups, their talents and potential to do better things for the industry.

Sophia shared her thought:“that only with a higher number of female researchers it is possible to fully use the existing innovation and talent potential within a research area” and Maria noted that an “increased number of female researchers worldwide means that women with equal or even better capabilities are being given more opportunities now than in the past”. This will hopefully have a significant impact on other areas of the world, she continued: “this will mean that low and middle-income countries will see more women working on scientific and technological issues that can uplift their quality of life. Diversity and statistics will always lead to more revolutionary ideas that can change the world”.

What do women bring to science and to our industry?

According to Begüm, in many research areas “women face new challenges to meet the goals and targets in all levels of science”. Therefore, there’s a common “need” to provide a broader range of understanding and creativity:

“Encouraging the participation of women is essential, as men and women bring different perspectives to research and innovation. The diverse research groups in both academic and industry should combine various skills and abilities”.

But let’s be clear, “women can generate the same ideas and deliver similar results as any other gender in the room”, continues Maria. However, “there is a dearth of examples of this happening in the lead battery industry right now”. As Sibel highlights “like men, women bring their passion, patience, hard work and energy to the science and industry. But the important thing that women bring to science and industry is “diversity”:

“The lead battery industry seems to be a male-dominant industry from the outside however, it is proven by many articles and researches that diversity leads to innovation, so for innovation, industry and science we need more gender-balanced workforce.”

One thing is for sure, there’s a lot of admiration amongst women within the industry as they bring not only the obvious empowerment to each other, but also their perspectives, different backgrounds, skills and visions that add “a considerable value” to the industry, according to Sophia.

So, what advice would you give to a young female researcher starting/considering a career in the lead battery industry now?

We could not end this article without mentioning and promoting other women who are relevant references for our interviewees such as Dr. Kathryn R. Bullock, “whose vision, research and leadership led to revolutionary changes in the lead battery industry. She was a giant among men and the only female recognized by the Gaston Plante Award Committee in its 32 years of existence” (mentioned Maria) and Dr. Julia Kowal, a professor at TU Berlin who is “highly engaged in many committees to represent women in every aspect. She is carrying this additional workload to support other women in their academic career” (stated Sophia).

It's February 2022 when the “International Day of Women and Girls in Science” happens and CBI would like to celebrate every talent who is aiming to be a part of this exciting future for research and innovation, especially in the lead battery industry!

Highly charged: opportunities for lead batteries for EV fast-charging

A 2021 White Paper commissioned by CBI indicates that using lead batteries for high-rate DC to DC electric vehicle charging will be technically and commercially viable. This project has caught the attention of the State of Missouri, Missouri Gas & Electric and the Missouri University of Science & Technology. Their plan is to install several prototype systems in local Missouri gasoline stations. An RFP has been issued to for companies willing to design and build these first prototypes.

Fueling these plans is the need to provide accessible charging for EV buyers. The US auto industry has determined that a “hypothetical barrier” stands in the way of increased EV sales. The industry believes that greater EV adoption depends on an improved charging infrastructure in order to alleviate car-buyers' drive-range anxiety. And unlike the network of “super charging stations that Tesla had the foresight to install all around the world, other EVs are lacking in their ability for fast-charging. A Tesla super charger can take a discharged Tesla to about 80% state-of-charge (SoC) in less than 30 minutes.  This “super charging” ability gives the Tesla driver a secure feeling when embarking on a long trip.  

Other EV drivers are relegated to using lower power charging stations at hotels and parking structures, but these lower power chargers can take upwards of 4 hours to get the vehicle battery to 80% SoC. Not a good situation.

In a recent announcement, California governor Gavin Newsom is not only proposing that every new car sold in California by 2035 be electric or zero emission but is also supporting legislature that new homes be equipped with EV charging capabilities. The article by Plastics Today also quotes a Reuters report that fast chargers are very expensive and typically cost ~$100,000.  Such systems are also expensive to operate due to high cost of electric power and demand charges.  

California has announced that every new car sold in the State by 2035 should be electric or zero emission.

CBI has written about the critical role of advanced lead batteries for the electric vehicle revolution by powering safety features on-board EVs.  The potential for the technology to be the battery powering EV charging stations is another significant opportunity. 

The time is ripe in California, and indeed the rest of the world, to adopt and install High-Rate lead battery-backed DC to DC charging systems as proposed by the CBI White Paper. As countries and their auto industries scramble to expand their BEV charging infrastructures and advance electrification and decarbonization agendas, lead battery industry has a huge opportunity to play a key role in this charging infrastructure expansion.  

The window of opportunity for lead battery manufacturers to form partnerships, design prototypes and submit proposals to be a part of this electrification expansion is open now.  Change is coming and our industry should be part of it!  

By Dr George Brilmyer, Batt-Tek Consulting, LLC and member of CBI's Expert Panel

Interested in more? Check out these other CBI blogs:

Harnessing the sun: lead batteries for EV charging

The shift to a low carbon future is heavily invested in both renewable energy and low-emission vehicles such as EVs. And in an exciting partnership announced by CBI member Advanced Battery Concepts, they’re bringing both solar energy and EV charging together.

Chosen to supply their innovative, bipolar lead batteries for GreenCore’s charging plazas across the US, ABC will manufacture and supply the energy storage systems using their patented GreenSeal® technology for an estimated 10,000 Solar EV Charging Plazas by the end of the decade.

Enabling GreenCore to harness solar energy generated on site, ABC’s lead storage batteries provide faster recharge, higher power and increased cycle life compared to conventional storage batteries. Combined with high recycling rates and domestic manufacturing, the technology is tapping into the greater demand for domestic energy independence in the US.

As the growth of the EV market continues, with global sales increasing by 39% in 2020 alone, the demand for reliable, renewable, and widespread fast-charging infrastructure is booming. 

Read more about the exciting partnership between ABC and GreenCore here. Originally published by Advanced Battery Concepts, LLC. 

Embodying Europe’s drive for innovative technologies

From CBI-funded projects to university collaborations, advanced lead batteries are a technology embodying Europe’s drive for innovative technologies to deliver ambitious decarbonisation and electrification targets.

Creating synergy between academia and industry through battery research has been a cornerstone of CBI’s technical programs. In a project underway at Fraunhofer ISC, they’re working with Ford’s Research and Innovation Center, TU Berlin and Moll Batterien to improve regenerative braking performance in hybrid cars.

This critical market, including micro-hybrids which are predicted to represent over 80% of new vehicles in Europe by 2030, relies on advanced lead batteries to deliver greater fuel efficiency and reduced carbon emissions. Specifically targeting Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA), the research is ensuring the most advanced lead batteries are used in vehicles, to support the transition to a low-carbon future. 

In another project with Fraunhofer ISC partnering with Poland-based Wroclaw University, a research team is using tailor-made carbons and utilizing advanced physical and electrochemical techniques to study key performance indicators for lead battery technology. Specifically for micro-hybrid vehicles, this research is an important step in responding to market demand from Europe’s automotive sector.  

2V, 2.5 Ah ISC laboratory cells for the Fraunhofer and Wroclaw University project (Copyright Fraunhofer ISC)

Transitioning now to the buzz words ‘energy storage’, CBI’s latest technical research program funded a suite of projects dedicated to the driving innovation in advanced lead batteries for this growing market. As the world shifts to cleaner sources of energy and the need for more reliable grids, battery energy storage research is essential. 

In an ongoing project with Spanish research institute INMA and battery manufacturer Exide, high-tech neutron diffraction techniques are being used by scientists to gain a deeper understanding of the charge/discharge processes occurring in a lead battery. In a first-of-its-kind approach used to study the technology, the research will improve energy efficiency and the Partial State-of-Charge (PSoC) cycle life of batteries for energy storage systems (ESS). 

Tapping directly into the new goals set out in CBI’s Technical Roadmap, this energy storage research is paving the way for advanced lead batteries to enhance their performance for renewable and utility energy storage.

A new university research partnership between the University of Warwick and Loughborough University will show how advanced lead batteries can support electricity grid energy storage and important low-carbon systems facilitated by renewable solar and wind energy.

Funded under CBI’s 2021 research program, the university collaboration is developing more advanced levels of modelling and prediction of lead battery behaviour for utility grid storage. The aim is to facilitate better battery management and higher uptake of lead batteries to support the energy grid.

This is just a snapshot of the innovation underway across Europe, all focused on advanced lead batteries. Europe’s climate change goals are driving enhanced research for battery technologies, and CBI with the EU lead battery industry and other university and research institutes partners are striving to ensure lead batteries remain one of the central players in this shift to a low-carbon future. 

Stayed tuned for Part 2!

Lead batteries will help power the future

As the US shifts to greater levels of energy security, the role of batteries becomes ever-more important to underpin this transition. Used in a wide range of applications from vehicles to renewable energy, advanced lead batteries offer an advantage through the high rates of domestic manufacture and recycling. Combined with a big industry push for research and innovation into the technology outlined in CBI’s Technical Roadmap - to deliver enhanced performance across key technical parameters such as cycle life, energy efficiency and dynamic charge acceptance - advanced lead batteries are critical for powering the future. 

CBI member Stryten Energy joins CBI’s guest blog to share insight into the unique blend of extensive domestic manufacturing infrastructure and unparalleled sustainability that advanced lead batteries have to offer.

Lead Batteries Will Help Power the Future

Renewable energy has many benefits, such as energy security through diversification of energy supply and reduced reliance on imported fuel. Energy generated by wind, solar and hydropower doesn’t produce greenhouse gas emissions, helping reduce air pollution. 

As we consider the significant benefits of renewable energy, we also have to consider the current limitations. The sun may shine and the wind may blow today, but the next day may be overcast and calm. Continuous availability is the key, and reliable energy storage with advanced battery technology is the answer.  

Proven History 

Lead batteries have been in use for over 160 years. Their reliability has made them the most commonly used rechargeable battery technology for numerous applications. 

Because of their relatively large power-to-weight ratio, lead batteries are preferred for starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) applications. Advanced lead batteries such as Enhanced Flooded Batteries (EFB) and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) enable start-stop technology in today’s vehicles and provide the additional power required by advanced safety features and modern conveniences.

In electric vehicle (EV) applications, lithium batteries are used as the propulsion source for the vehicle, replacing gasoline. However, almost every auto also carries a lead battery to power critical safety functions such as power steering and braking systems. Components like the lights, entertainment system and heating/cooling system also run on a 12-volt system, powered by lead batteries.

Lead batteries are also widely used for backup power supplies for microgrids, residential solar, telecommunications and utilities, for network operation centers and data centers, and even as backup power on nuclear submarines.   

Domestic Manufacturing 

Compared to newer battery technologies, lead batteries are inexpensive to manufacture. According to the Department of Energy, lead batteries have a lower capital cost of $260 per kilowatt hour (kWh) compared to lithium at $271 per kWh. Lead batteries also require three times less energy to produce. Lithium needs 450 kWh per 1 kWh, while lead is 150 kWh per 1 kWh. In other words, the energy generated to produce a lithium battery likely costs more due to its energy density. 

Another important consideration is sourcing. While the U.S. is one of the leading producers of lead in the world, most of the lead and alloy materials necessary for manufacturing lead batteries come from recycling. Lead batteries manufactured in the U.S. typically contain more than 80 percent recycled material. Because of this domestic sourcing, lead battery manufacturers have a reliable supply chain minimally impacted by foreign trade disruptions. 

Domestic manufacturing related to lead batteries has a significant impact on the economy. The U.S. lead battery industry enables more than 92,000 jobs. The salaries for these manufacturing workers are 28 percent higher than many other private industry sectors. Overall, the lead battery industry contributes $2.4 billion in government revenue, $6 billion in labor income, $10.9 billion in gross domestic product and $26.3 billion in total economic output to the national economy. 

Looking Ahead 

Major battery manufacturers and suppliers collaborate with researchers to reach the full potential of lead batteries and enhance battery performance efficiency. Battery life has increased 30 to 35 percent in the last 20 years. Lead batteries have a lifespan of up to 18 years, and some have demonstrated lives up to 30 years in standby applications. 

A current goal is to reduce the weight of the batteries while increasing energy density. By doing so, lead batteries will become much more competitive with lithium. Research led by The Consortium for Battery Innovation is aimed at increasing the cycle life of lead batteries from 1,000 to 5,000, compared to lithium batteries at around 2,500 to 4,000. 

Safety and sustainability are two important aspects as we consider the future of lead batteries. For the telecommunications and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) markets, the lower shipping costs of lead batteries will be an advantage. Lithium is considered a Class 9 Hazardous Material because it can overheat and ignite under certain conditions. Once ignited, the fire can be difficult to extinguish. For that same reason, lead is also preferable for energy storage in areas where the use of lithium batteries is restricted by fire marshals.  

Lead batteries also have the advantage of a well-established recycling process. The recycling rate for lead batteries in the U.S. is 99 percent. Nearly 100 percent of lead can be recycled and infinitely reused with any loss of future performance capacity. By comparison, lithium batteries have a recycling rate of about 5 percent.    


The transition from fossil fuels to clean energy will take time, much like we have seen with the automotive industry’s move toward electric vehicles. But there is also considerable opportunity. The renewable energy industry is becoming a major employer in the U.S, and the median hourly pay for these jobs is about 25 percent higher than the national average. By reaching a majority renewable energy grid, nearly 1 million direct development, construction, installation, operations, manufacturing, and supply chain jobs will be created.

While some companies are focused solely on newer technologies as a replacement for lead batteries, we believe that a wide variety of battery technologies are necessary to ensure that the power generated by wind, sun and water is readily available. Advanced lead batteries also have a role in the growing demand for energy storage solutions. Lead batteries offer a unique blend of extensive domestic manufacturing infrastructure and unparalleled sustainability.   

By Mike Berger, Director of Engineering, Stryten Energy

Originally published by Stryten Energy

CBI is speaking and exhibiting at FENIBAT

CBI is speaking and exhibiting at FENIBAT, held in Londrina, Brazil on 22-24 May 2022. Find out more.

CBI is co-organizing the ELBC pre-conference workshop: Lead Batteries and the EV Revolution

As part of the ELBC week, CBI is co-organizing the pre-conference workshop: Lead Batteries and the EV Revolution, held on 6 September from 2pm-5pm.

Registration for the event is now open for ELBC delegates.

CBI General Assembly at BCI Convention

CBI will hold a General Assembly during the BCI Convention week.

CBI is attending the BCI Convention + Power Mart Expo

CBI is attending the BCI Convention + Power Mart Expo on 1-4 May 2022. Find out more.

CBI 2022 General Assembly and Technical Meeting at ELBC

CBI will hold a General Assembly meeting on 5 September from 2pm-5pm, and a Technical Meeting on 6 September at 9am-1pm during the week of ELBC.

Find out more.

ELBC call for papers and conference expo launched


ELBC, the global lead battery innovation conference which takes place in Lyon, France, 6-9 September 2022, has opened a call for papersexpo bookings and sponsorship packages

The conference, jointly organised by the International Lead Association and the Consortium for Battery Innovation, is encouraging papers on lead battery energy storage systems, automotive and industrial batteries, and updates on technical developments and new research. 

More than 120 expo stands plus silver and bronze sponsorship packages are available to book on the conference website at

This will be the first face-to-face ELBC conference since Vienna in 2018, after the 2020 event took place online for the first time amid the global coronavirus pandemic. 

 In Lyon, south-west France, the conference takes place at the impressive Centre de Congrès, with easy links to international airports including Paris and Nice. The food capital of France, Lyon’s culinary gems offer a diverse experience for visitors. 

Dr Andy Bush of ILA said: “We are delighted to be planning ELBC again, a unique conference which is organised by the industry for the industry. It’s been a long wait to 

get back together and discuss in person all aspects of the market as well as innovation and lead battery research. ELBC brings together the whole industry from manufacturers to suppliers, researchers and analysts. We will be hosting a major expo and look forward to seeing partners from across the industry and the world.”

Dr Alistair Davidson of CBI said: “We’re co-organising ELBC for the first time and as interest in lead battery innovation continues to grow, ELBC is a great opportunity to hear all of the latest developments in research as well as technical updates. We will also be holding a pre-conference workshop in Lyon on low-voltage EV batteries – a significant future application for the technology.”

With submissions open for 6 weeks, submit an abstract to join ELBC’s technical program via the ELBC website

Companies can also reserve an expo stand and enhance their visibility with sponsorship packages

Keep an eye on the conference website and our social channels for further details on the program, speakers, gala dinner and delegate registration.

Get involved on social: #ELBC


Note to editors: 

About International Lead Association

ILA is the only association representing lead producers globally, working to create a sustainable future for lead. Members of the association produce lead from mining, smelting, refining and recycling. For more information visit; +44 207 833 8090.

To contact ILA’s media office:

About Consortium for Battery Innovation

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:

To contact CBI's media office:

CBI is speaking and exhibiting at AABC Europe 2022

CBI is speaking during the technical lead track and exhibiting at AABC Europe 2022.

Visit the conference website.

“Research is the key point” says CBI’s new Technical Manager

As part of CBI’s technical team, we’ve recently welcomed Begüm Bozkaya. With a BSc degree in Chemistry from the Middle East Technical University and an MSc degree in Materials Science from the Technical University of Munich, she gained extensive knowledge on the effects of carbon additives on negative plates for lead batteries, after using this as a Ph.D. research topic. 

After working on several industrial projects for the past 6 years, Begüm joined CBI to gain a broader perspective on lead battery research as her role involves directly working with CBI’s global members from different companies and stages of the supply chain.  She will be managing all of CBI’s European Technical projects as well as supporting CBI’s standards program.

According to her, CBI is doing what no one else in the industry is by “combining the knowledge from the industry and research institutes and collecting them in a non-competitive environment”. This means it’s possible to pool knowledge from a range of battery experts in order to advance lead battery technology for all applications, from energy storage systems to automotive.

As part of CBI’s team based in Europe, it is also important to look at the role of EU industry-research-academia partnerships in driving innovation.  “We need to strongly defend the place of lead batteries. This is a well-established technology: we are cost-effective, recyclable, we have innovative research initiatives underway, and we’re committed to contributing to a cleaner future in the energy sector, especially to facilitate decarbonisation and support climate goals.  It is vital that the EU includes all batteries in their future work plans”.

In that sense, the work developed by CBI through its Technical Roadmap has been essential to collect relevant information for lead battery applications and to help educate the audience regarding the future of this technology that has an enormous potential:

“If we can open new research topics and innovative ideas that can cover what we have in the roadmap, I’m sure lead batteries can still be considered a key player in the efforts to decarbonise, and developed further as a result. Research is the key point.” 

Begüm Bozkaya, Technical Manager at CBI

When mentioning the new year and the developments that we can expect from advanced lead batteries, Bozkaya said that bipolar or advanced PbC batteries “can bring new research topics” for the industry and that these are “great candidates for EU initiatives”:

“There’s a bright future for advanced lead batteries and a lot of great research projects being developed as a result of CBI’s work, so I believe that in the near future we will be able to show even more how committed the industry is to Europe’s climate goals and, therefore be more involved with EU initiatives through lead battery research projects”.

For more information on CBI’s innovative technical program, click here.

Ending the year on a high

2021 has been a highly successful year for CBI, with expansion across our research projects, membership, and team. CBI launched a new Technical Roadmap for lead battery innovation, secured substantial government funding for lead battery research and added several new projects to its core research program. There was also a significant increase in activities to improve the awareness of lead battery performance and innovation to stakeholders including end-users. 

This year we welcomed 3 new staff members, strengthening our global team with additions for both Communications and Technical Program. Joana Coimbra, based in Brussels, has been a welcome addition in supporting the communications work underway in Europe. Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager and Begüm Bozkaya, Technical Manager, joined later in the year and are working to support CBI’s extensive research program and drive for government and stakeholder funding.

These important appointments came during a busy time where CBI launched its new Technical Roadmap, dedicated to advanced lead battery innovation and research. 

With the launch of new projects this year focused on energy storage, a significantly growing market for lead batteries and of critical importance on a global stage, CBI’s new Technical Roadmap built on the goals and targets set out during our launch in 2019.

The new Roadmap is extensive and covers every application space for lead batteries and demonstrates the key pathways for innovation and development for the technology to continue solidifying its path to deliver on the world’s electrification and decarbonization goals.

CBI didn’t just grow in team members this year. We welcomed 9 new members including Hyundai’s North American Technical Center, Stryten Manufacturing, Inbatec GmbH, Sorfin Yoshimura and ENTEK International.

Through the work of CBI in demonstrating the critical role of advanced lead batteries and the vast innovation potential for the technology, these are key drivers for our membership increase across the globe and we’re proud to work with our diverse members and partners to demonstrate the benefits of working with CBI.

With the end of the year came the return of some in-person events, with the team visiting LyonBrussels, San Diego and Phoenix for conferences and expos, and our North American Technical Workshop held in Raleigh, North Carolina 

But one of the biggest events back on the schedule for next year, and co-organised by CBI with ILA, will be ELBC, the global lead battery innovation conference. Taking place next year on 6-9 September, this event will be the premier technical conference dedicated to lead battery innovation, bringing together 1000+ attendees from across the world.

With a world-class technical program, featuring experts and topics relevant to every part of the lead battery application space and value chain, look out for the launch of our Call for Papers, expo reservations and sponsorship opportunities early next year.

We see a strong future for advanced lead batteries. The work of our members is critical in this and we’re proud to support their work through our technical and communications initiatives. Next year will no doubt be even busier than this year, so keep an eye out for our new research Request for Proposals, updated lead battery market data and energy storage case studies, just to name a few. 

Newest member of CBI: ENTEK International

CBI is pleased to announce the latest member to join the research consortium, ENTEK International.

For more than 30 years, ENTEK has been an innovator and leading world-wide designer and producer of highly reliable microporous polyethylene battery separators for lead batteries.

CBI is excited to work together with ENTEK and our global membership to accelerate the future of global energy storage.

For more information, read ENTEK's press release.

CBI at the ESACon21 to share industry’s drive towards innovation

The ESA Annual Energy Storage Conference and Expo (ESACon21) took place last week from December 1 – 3 in Phoenix, Arizona with manufacturers, storage developers, investors, policymakers and many others from the energy sector gathered to discuss the latest trends and developments within this industry.

With the current US climate goals centered on reducing 50% of carbon emissions by 2030, the focus relies on the economy’s decarbonisation and sustainability creating opportunities for innovation and sustainable growth.

This was a great occasion for CBI to share its work towards innovation for advanced lead batteries, but also to discuss the future role of this technology in energy storage as the demand for batteries will only increase, according to the latest data from the US Department of Energy. This growth will offer significant opportunities for advanced lead batteries to provide battery energy storage on a mass-market scale and to help achieve climate goals.

Advanced lead batteries are already a critical technology used in a range of energy storage applications. From supporting smart grids and remote area power supplies to ESS for residential, commercial, and industrial applications, the high safety and reliability profile of the technology means there’s also great potential for transmission and distribution reserves and investment deferral with smaller systems.

CBI at the ESACon21

CBI’s case studies, available on our interactive map, demonstrate this technology’s value and effectiveness across the globe. For instance, in Nigeria, local communities now have access to electricity thanks to solar microgrid installations powered by advanced lead batteries. In New York City a building’s power infrastructure is more reliable and better prepared for extreme weather events while reducing its carbon footprint, after being provided with a solar + storage solution using this technology.  In Pennsylvania, lead batteries are being used for scale services to balance and smooth USA’s largest energy grid.

By sharing a range of these case studies and the Technical Roadmap, CBI was able to share with ESACon21 attendees the fantastic work and effort made by the global industry towards innovation, as well as the significant benefits of this technology for energy storage systems.

Watch our event video:

Project update: scientists collaborate to study advanced batteries using neutron diffraction


Beamline meets battery: scientists collaborate to study advanced batteries using neutron diffraction


Energy storage systems (ESS)


24 months


The project aims to gain a deeper understanding of the charge/discharge processes occurring in a lead battery using neutron-scattering experiments, to directly enhance the performance of ESS lead batteries.

This is a new approach which has never been used before to study lead batteries.

If successful, it will be able to be extended to explore other parts and processes of lead batteries.


Exide Technologies, INMA.

Project update:

INMA have designed the first prototypes of a new lead battery, specifically intended for neutron experiments.

A range of characterization work and feasibility studies have been undertaken to optimize the prototype of neutron-scattering work.

The next step of the project is to conduct extensive neutron diffraction work to probe the fundamentals of lead batteries.

Using neutron diffraction and tomography, the growth and dissolution mechanisms of different active material species will be studied and evaluated under charge regimes relevant for ESS. 

The new understanding is expected to improve the energy efficiency and the Partial State-of-Charge (PSoC) cycle life of batteries for ESS:

- This encompasses renewable energy applications such as wind and solar ESS, which typically require excellent PSoC performance.

The research underway ties directly into the new research goals of CBI’s Technical Roadmap, where improving cycle life and energy efficiency have been identified as a key priority research goals for ESS lead batteries.

View the project update video

View the project press release

Released 8 March 2021

Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc joins advanced battery research consortium


DURHAM, N.C. – November 15, 2021 - As automotive lead batteries are set to receive an energy boost through new research unveiled in their new Technical Roadmap, the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) announce their newest member, Hyundai Motor Group

One of the world’s leading car companies, Hyundai Motor Group, joins through its North American design, technology and engineering arm, Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI). Headquartered in Michigan with operations in California and production facilities in Alabama and Georgia, HATCI supports development activities for the Hyundai, Kia, and Genesis brands.

The exciting partnership which brings together innovation on both sides of the automotive sector – research and development – comes at a pivotal time for the global lead battery industry. 

Ramping up research efforts to deliver next-generation advanced lead batteries, CBI’s new Technical Roadmap has identified key research pathways for the technology, widely used in start-stop and micro-hybrids. Another growing automotive application identified in the Roadmap is the use of low-voltage lead batteries in electric vehicles (EVs).

“As Hyundai Motor Group and HATCI continues to strive for an eco-friendly mobility future, we see significant value in joining the Consortium for Battery Innovation,” said John Robb, president, HATCI. “Combining resources, knowledge and testing scenarios will positively influence our industry efforts during a pivotal time in moving towards world-class electric vehicle propulsions.” 

Hyundai Motor Group, joins through its North American design, technology and engineering arm, Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI).

Director of CBI, Dr. Alistair Davidson, said: “Having Hyundai’s Technical Center on board is a giant step forward for the industry in collaborating with the biggest market for advanced lead batteries: the automotive sector. 

“By working together with CBI’s global membership, which spans the entire lead battery value chain, Hyundai can really benefit from the latest in technology advancements and be able to integrate the technology into their products.”

Working with the automotive industry is a key pillar of CBI’s work and covers the entire automotive application space, from 12V batteries used in conventional, start-stop and micro-hybrid vehicles to low-voltage EV batteries. Micro-hybrids are predicted to represent 60% of new car sales globally by 2030.

Each year, CBI holds workshops bringing together global lead battery experts and automotive OEMs to create synergies between pioneering research and automotive developments.

New goals identified in the Roadmap by the CBI membership for automotive applications are building on the targets set out for Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA) in 2019. These targets have witnessed industry successes in the last two years, and have been expanded to include:

These goals are critical for the continued role of advanced lead batteries in supporting the global shift to electrification through cleaner forms of transport and e-mobility. 

Involving car manufacturers like Hyundai in CBI’s automotive lead battery efforts is vital, providing clear avenues for accelerating innovation and developing a harmonized perspective of how lead batteries can meet the increasing demand for energy storage in future vehicles.


Notes to editors

About the Consortium for Battery Innovation

The Consortium for Battery Innovation is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:

Dr. Alistair Davidson, Director of CBI, is available for interview. For more information, please contact CBI’s media contact: Niamh Owen-McLaughlin, +1 425 223 7499;

About Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc.

As one of Hyundai Motor Group's (HMG) seven global centers focused on research and development (R&D), HATCI was established in 1986 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. HATCI is HMG's design, technology and engineering division for North America. As HMG solidified its position as one of the top global OEMs, HATCI has grown to include a strong network of engineering disciplines and increased business-focused activities to support North America's Voice of the Customer.

HATCI supports new model development for HMG's North American operations and global programs from our dedicated engineering facilities and support staff at affiliate sites located throughout the United States. HATCI's success in satisfying the demands of increasingly sophisticated consumers is a direct result of HMG's commitment to the future of American automotive engineering. HATCI upholds a strong R&D philosophy hinged on the creative and passionate input of all team members. This philosophy is paramount to HMG's North American strategy and serves as the foundation for engineering excellence and technological advancement.

CBI nominated for Excellence Awards

Power Technology, a leading energy publication, includes CBI on shortlist for Sector Excellence Awards – Batteries & Storage

For the first time, CBI has been nominated for a 2021 Excellence Award, announced by a leading global energy publication, Power Technology

Included in the Batteries & Storage shortlist as part of the Sector Excellence category, CBI’s work in battery research and innovation has placed us alongside other battery and storage leaders such as Tesla, Hitachi and Engie.  

With our recently launched Technical Roadmap, CBI is a driving force for global innovation for advanced lead batteries, a critical technology underpinning the global shift to greater levels of decarbonization and electrification. 

Recognizing the soaring demand for battery energy storage worldwide – from use in clean energy projects to e-mobility – CBI is paving the way for the next generation of advanced lead batteries through our scientific research program.

Find out more about our work here, and about this year’s Power Technology Excellence Awards.

ELBC: The Global Lead Battery Innovation Conference & Expo

ELBC is back. Join us in Lyon, France for the premier lead battery innovation conference of the year.

Co-organized by CBI and ILA, don't miss out on ELBC which brings together the world's lead battery experts.

With up 1000 attendees expected, a world-class technical program and an expo featuring more than 120 stands, ELBC takes place on 6-9 September, in person, in Lyon.

Registration for the event is now open. Click here to join ELBC

Key enablers of Europe’s climate-neutral goals: energy storage and batteries

The 4th edition of EASE’s Energy Storage Global Conference took place last week (19 – 21 October) in Brussels and online. With the support of the European Commission, the event provided three days of talks and discussions around the future of energy storage, its current market, policy frameworks and the latest trends in technology. 

For the opening session, Maroš Šefčovič, Vice-President of the European Commission for Interinstitutional Relations and Foresight, spoke about the key role of energy storage and batteries to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, while highlighting its increasing demand to answer the new targets for renewable energy and carbon emission standards.

Šefčovič mentioned the importance of innovation and competition to keep investing in current technologies, improving performance and using advanced materials: “Europe must invest, not only in improving existing solutions but also in developing next generation breakthrough technologies”.

EASE’s President, David Post, also predicted battery storage of 7.7TWh by 2030 and highlighted the importance of supporting all technologies.

The last day of the conference was focused on discovering the latest cutting-edge energy storage technologies and CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, Dr Carl Telford, spoke in a session dedicated to “Electrochemical and Electrical Energy Storage”, presenting the work that CBI has been developing through research and innovation for advanced lead batteries.

CBI at the ESGC 2021 with Doriana Forleo from EASE

CBI's 2021 Technical Roadmap was presented to illustrate how constant performance improvement and technological advances can create limitless opportunities for the lead battery industry to help achieve global electrification and decarbonization targets.

While navigating through Europe’s funding landscape and showcasing European energy storage case studies using lead batteries (with Exide Group and Systems Sunlight SA), Dr Telford explained the challenges that the industry might face when applying through a “very complex” funding system, but also concluded with an optimistic note on the amount of opportunities that exist for energy storage and batteries in terms of public funding, proving that these are indeed necessary for the future:

“When considering the EU’s high-level goals, the speed of action required to mitigate the climate crisis, it is crucial that all energy storage solutions are not only available for deployment, but also encouraged”.

By Joana Coimbra,
Communications Officer, CBI

CBI-sponsored workshop targeting safety-relevant automotive batteries

During a two-day workshop sponsored by CBI, a group of experts from car manufacturers, sensor and software suppliers and battery companies met to discuss future safety-relevant applications of automotive batteries. Whenever safe operation of a vehicle relies on 12V power supply, for example in steering, braking, driver-assistance or autonomous-driving functions, battery diagnostics is essential for Functional Safety (FuSa). The workshop focused on physical verification methods for Safety State-of-Function (SSOF) battery diagnostics.

Following a series of virtual meetings in the last several months, the in-person meeting held in Paris on 5-7 October began by identifying several key focus areas:

Over the past six months, members of the SSOF group have shared their perspective on the industry allowing for a common perspective on the current state-of-the-art for 12V auxiliary batteries not only in conventional vehicles,  but also in battery-electric vehicles. 

The use of lead batteries in electric vehicles is a key application with significant future opportunities, as identified by the recently launched CBI Technical Roadmap.

A major step in this collaborative effort, the meeting in Paris represented a milestone in recovery from the restrictions imposed by Covid-19. For all of the participants, it was the first time they had met in person outside their own organizations since lockdowns were imposed, and the first time many had met each other in person. 

Participants during one of the sessions during the CBI-sponsored SSOF workshop in Paris

The meeting was chaired by Dr Eckhard Karden of Ford and attended by 18 experts from car manufacturers, sensor and software suppliers to the car manufacturers, and battery companies, with others joining virtually. So far, subject matter experts from 4 car manufacturers, 4 electronics suppliers, and 6 battery companies have been actively contributing to the group.

The purpose of this working group is to facilitate pre-competitive collaboration to harmonize the diagnostics for 12 V lead battery systems. This work is relevant for both for 12V main batteries which provide safety critical functions for vehicles and for auxiliary batteries (also known as low-voltage EV batteries) which provide secure power supplies for all types of vehicles including hybrid and pure electric vehicles.

The in-person meeting helped accelerate the continued harmonization effort, allowing for productive planning for key topics. The discussions covered the methods of diagnosis and the relevant fault conditions that need to be considered in order to ensure the battery is always able to meet the required duty cycle in a critical incident. 

Furthermore, it was considered that an industry-wide database should be created with measured raw data from batteries in different conditions and with different ages for use in SSOF verification.

The workshop was successful in bringing together an important group to ensure batteries and the associated diagnostics are correctly specified for these automotive applications.

Interested in finding out more about CBI’s work in the automotive sector?

By Dr Matt Raiford

CBI insights on low-voltage EV batteries featured on World Economic Forum

Read our guest blog featured on the World Economic Forum (WEF), covering the essential role of lead batteries for the safety of the world's electric vehicles (EVs).

CBI's Chairman, Dr Christian Rosenkranz from Clarios, shared his thoughts on low-voltage EV batteries with a special focus on Europe, as a critical technology for Europe's Green Deal ambitions.

Read the blog here.

Moura – Solar microgrid in Brazil

Living Laboratory: Solar Microgrid Using Lead Batteries  

Download the full case study

View CBI's Interactive Map of energy storage case studies

Belo Jardim, Brazil

In a carport system for ITEMM, a battery energy storage system (BESS) coupled with solar panels acts as a living microgrid laboratory.

Designed for smart and sustainable energy usage, the carport solar system uses Moura’s lead-carbon batteries to store surplus photovoltaic (PV) energy generated during the day.

Partnering with ITEMM – Institute of Technology Edson Mororó Moura – the project allows Moura to test other energy storage system applications such as PV power smoothing, voltage control and frequency regulation.

Moura is at the forefront of developing lead-carbon battery energy storage systems in South America.

Luiz Mello, BESS and Industrial Batteries General Director, Moura
The carport featuring a solar PV + lead-carbon battery energy storage system (BESS) at ITEMM

Technical Specification

Installed in 2019, the 250 kW / 560 kWh BESS performs peak shaving, backup and reactive power management. 

Powered by Moura’s lead-carbon batteries, the technology provides:

The system also features a battery management system (BMS) which controls a new charging algorithm based on smart overcharging control, enhancing the system lifetime up to 10 years at 80% Depth-of-Discharge (DoD). 

With the solar panels installed in November 2020, the PV system provides up to 250 kW. This additional renewable element complements the sustainability of the project, which utilizes highly recyclable lead-carbon batteries.

Moura's 250 kW / 560 kWh BESS

The PV plant powers the load, and the BESS stores the energy surplus generated through the solar panels during the day.

During peak periods when the distribution grid tariffs are higher, the BESS supplies the load and performs energy arbitrage services.

The system acts as a living microgrid laboratory to allow Moura and ITEMM to test a range of ESS applications and the performance of lead-carbon batteries in these applications:

Technical Summary

Overall capacity250 kW
Total panels installed810 panels
Battery specificationLead-carbon 
Available stored energy560 kWh

About the Company 

Moura has seven industrial plants, six in Brazil and one in Argentina, with around 6,000 employees. Initially focused on the automotive sector, operations were expanded to other segments, producing batteries for numerous applications, such as battery energy storage systems, motorcycles, boats, forklifts, subways, trains and telecom stations.

CBI takes part in #EUSEW: a new era for the lead battery is pushing for decarbonisation and circular economy

On October 4, CBI brought together a digital panel to discuss the critical role of batteries for Europe’s sustainable transition. As part of Europe's Sustainable Energy Week, supported by the EU Commission, the virtual event provided an open discussion around the importance of a level playing field amongst technologies in Europe and featured European case studies where advanced lead batteries are providing reliable, recyclable and safe energy storage.

CBI’s Research and Innovation Manager, Dr Carl Telford, opened the event by showcasing our recently launched Technical Roadmap, to illustrate that “sustainable economies need batteries”. If policy makers want to solve the problems of climate change and pollution, while moving from a linear to a circular economy, then industries will “need a proper deployment of battery technologies and energy storage”, and this is where Europe’s lead battery industry plays a key role.

From Exide Europe, Holger Fricke, Director Basic Research R&D EMEA, presented the benefits of Exide’s “on-site solar installation in Portugal”, that combines lead battery energy storage with renewable energy. Carbon emissions were reduced by more than 20% and energy management was improved, turning this case study into a real-world example of decarbonisation, with the installation facilities now being used as a showcase.

Peter Stevenson, Senior Technical Co-ordinator at GS Yuasa, joined the event to discuss the importance of hybrid solutions for Europe’s sustainable energy future. Using an example of the “world’s first container of dual chemistry energy storage system”, he highlighted the “complementarity and flexibility” between lead and lithium battery technologies.

While moderating the panel, Patrick Clerens, Secretary-General at EASE, reflected on the need of a level playing field between different technologies and stated that “no one can pick a technology winner”. Europe needs more batteries and new battery technologies, including hybrid ones, and through this it is possible to have “the best of both worlds”.

CBI's virtual event for #EUSEW 2021

There are already some EU industrial and research initiatives going on to demonstrate how batteries can work together to reach the energy demands, such as the European Battery Alliance, Batteries Europe, Batteries 2030+ or IPCEI's. However, it remains important to share the message that a wide array of energy storage and battery technologies are needed to address the flexibility requirements and support the energy transition and the EU green goals, including lead batteries.

By the end of the discussion, it was clear that other industries can learn from the lead battery experience since it’s a well-established industry that represents a major example of circularity in Europe. Through research and innovation, enhancing the performance of lead-based technologies will be essential for Europe’s sustainable energy future and create further opportunities for synergies with other chemistries.  

Watch the video of the event:

Download the presentations from the event below:

  1. Supporting Europe's Sustainable Energy Future: Advanced Lead Batteries
  2. Renewable Projects to Frequency Regulation: Introducing Advanced Lead Battery Energy Storage
  3. The Importance of a Level Playing Field for Batteries in Europe
  4. Case Study: Renewable Energy Storage for Manufacturing
  5. Case Study: Hybrid Battery Systems

Lead batteries are a part of the future and this is why

For the first time at the Batteries Event, held in September 2021 and organized by Avicenne Energy, there was a dedicated session for lead batteries. This is another major step for the industry demonstrating how this technology continues to evolve and is key to the current discussions within the energy sector.

Co-organized by CBI and EUROBAT, the session ‘Driving sustainable growth through LEAD BATTERY innovation’ brought up significant topics such as decarbonisation, circular economy and the work of the lead industry to upgrade and innovate for current applications such as clean energy and e-mobility.

Opening the session was EUROBAT’s Director Communications & Stewardship, Gert Meylemans, who noted that both lead and lithium will still be the dominant chemistries in the next decade.

Focusing on the numbers, lead-based technology will remain almost exclusively the preferred technology for 12V automotive applications, while continuing to be the dominant technology for UPS applications (Uninterruptible Power Supply) providing 90% of global demand and increasing by 5.5 GWh by 2030.

Our very own Research and Innovation Manager Dr Carl Telford introduced our recently launched Technical Roadmap to the audience and explored the funding opportunities for the industry within the EU.

From left to right: Gert MEYLEMANS (EUROBAT), Dr Bernhard RIEGEL (HOPPECKE) & Dr Carl TELFORD (CBI)

CBI’s new Technical Roadmap is an expansive document setting out key research priorities for the industry for all applications using lead batteries. With a special section dedicated to energy storage systems solutions where lead batteries play a major role – from utility and renewable energy storage projects to hybrid solutionsthe opportunities to enhance lead batteries through research and innovation have huge potential.

Dr Christian Rosenkranz from Clarios (also CBI’s Chairman) explored both CBI and EUROBAT Roadmaps, highlighting the “strong innovation potential of all battery technologies” and their contribution to the EU Green Deal, Fit-for-55 and net-zero pollution goals, as they:

To conclude this fantastic session, Dr Bernhard Riegel from HOPPECKE explored the innovation potential of electrochemical storage systems for industrial applications, an “ongoing process” for established technologies. High recyclability, low investment cost and low safety requirements were pointed out as the main advantages of the lead-based technology for the upcoming years.

The Batteries Event 2021 has ended but our work is now more exciting than ever with all the future opportunities for the technology and the innovation to come, driven by CBI’s Technical Roadmap.

Batteries: The Future of European Sustainability

As part of Europe's Sustainable Energy Week, the Consortium for Battery Innovation is bringing together a panel to discuss the critical role of batteries for Europe's sustainable transition.

With discussion around the importance of a level playing field amongst technologies in Europe, the digital event will feature case studies of advanced lead batteries providing reliable, recyclable and safe energy storage throughout the EU. From large-scale frequency regulation to hybrid battery projects harnessing wind and solar power, advanced lead batteries are a vital part of Europe's energy mix.

Join us to hear how the technology is supporting Europe's sustainable energy future.  

View the agenda here and contact Anita Wright ( to register.

Battery power: a Technical Roadmap for next-generation advanced lead batteries


DURHAM, N.C. – September 20, 2021 - The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) has launched its latest Technical Roadmap dedicated to delivering high-performance batteries supporting green growth and decarbonization goals across the globe.

Combining the latest market analysis with a scientific vision setting out how batteries can enhance performance to deliver a clean and sustainable future, CBI – the global battery research organization - has unveiled new research plans for advanced lead battery research.

Demand continues to soar for battery energy storage across the world as the switch is made to vehicles with greater levels of electrification and energy grids enhance their resilience and flexibility. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) predicts global growth of energy storage systems to triple to reach 160 GWh by 2030.  

Sectors such as telecoms, the shift to 5G networks and the need for reliable power for data centres also feature batteries as central to maintaining communications. 

Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios, said: “We are spearheading research collaborations with governments, universities, end-users and lead battery manufacturers to ensure we fully tap the innovation potential of the technology. This is the age of the battery, and our roadmap is helping us deliver next-generation lead batteries to meet the challenges of making a clean future a reality.”

CBI’s Director, Dr Alistair Davidson, added: “Analysts predict a huge increase in global demand for lead batteries, estimated to be around 490,000 MWh by 2030. Our Technical Roadmap sets a clear path to achieving enhanced high performing and resilient advanced lead batteries through our new research.”

The roadmap highlights the huge potential to increase lead battery performance and sets targets in each application area, from mobility to renewable energy storage – to increase the lifetime and efficiency of batteries in each sector.

In addition, the superior circularity, safety and reliability of lead batteries is adding further credibility to the nationwide push to be a centre for sustainable battery technology.

Targets in the roadmap include: 

The new roadmap builds on the progress made in the first edition published in 2019 and expands its coverage of key application areas including motive power, industrial, UPS and e-bikes.


Notes to editors 

  1. The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is a pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology. Through research partnerships with scientific institutions across the globe, CBI is setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage.
  2. Download CBI’s Technical Roadmap here.
  3. Watch CBI’s video showing how lead batteries are electrifying the future:
  4. Dr Alistair Davidson, Director of CBI, is available for interview. For more information, please contact CBI’s media contact: Niamh Owen-McLaughlin, +1 425 223 7499;

The Green and Digital Transition: how CBI is helping lead batteries to stand out

On September 15, the EU Commission’s President made a State of the Union speech highly focused on the future: from investing in 5G, to improving research and innovation and making sure that Europe will reach the EU Green Deal goals.  Ursula Von der Leyen pointed out some of the key aspects that rule our work at CBI and our dialogue with our members and companies from the industry.

Through NextGenerationEU, the Commission is committed to “invest in 5G and digital skills” as the demand for faster and more efficient networks increases, along with the explosion of AI, EVs and many other real-time autonomous applications.

“To ensure uninterrupted access to these services, telecoms and data centre back-up demand will increase exponentially” and this is where lead batteries have an important role. As the main option for the “uninterruptible power supply (UPS) energy storage needed for data centres and network rooms” representing 90% of global demand, lead batteries are a critical player for Europe’s digital transition.

But let’s not forget about the role of this technology for hospital back-up applications, incredibly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic, by “ensuring uninterrupted power supplies”. In Italy and in the UK, FIAMM’s provided safe and reliable lead batteries to support hospital power. 

Another wish from Von der Leyen is to achieve “European tech sovereignty”, which also includes the ability to supply the entire value chain in many highly demanded technologies, such as EVs, hybrid vehicles or renewable energy storage systems. CBI recognizes that all batteries are needed to give Europe the faculty to attain green goals and, as we invest in research and innovation for advanced lead batteries and work with world-class institutes, we are here to say that this technology is a critical player in the green transition by offering “high-performance, reliability, safety and a sustainability profile including almost 100% recycling at end-of-life in Europe”.

We are demonstrating that lead batteries can make EVs safer, that our members are involved in clean energy storage projects contributing to decarbonization and that this technology is a great team player when collaborating with other batteries and using the best of both chemistries for a more efficient outcome.

As the urge for a fair green transition and a cleaner energy society increases, CBI believes that the actions to reach 2030 goals must be taken now and that the potential and opportunities for advanced lead batteries are limitless:

"To make sure that the clean energy transition is achieved, Europe should use as many lead batteries as possible, and increase investment in research and innovation for this technology".

CBI is proudly recognized as the world’s only advanced battery research group supporting EU-based companies and we believe that through collaborative research for innovation we will help the EU to achieve the ambitious, but not impossible, goals.

CBI’s « rail road » to keep supporting research and innovation for lead batteries

This year is set to be the Year of Rail in Europe and the EU is also currently celebrating its Mobility Week.

In fact, there are many reasons to keep investing and improving this sustainable, innovative and fast transport mode. Not only does it add value from an economic perspective by contributing to the EU Green goals for 2050 while creating jobs and growth (note that: only in 2015, the rail sector employed directly 577,000 people according to an EU Commission's report ), but it also has a social impact by connecting people from all member states through seamless rail networks and reducing distance when it comes to commuting.

Therefore, thinking about the future of Europe’s Rail industry also leads to the future of its sustainability in our society - possible to develop through research and innovation.

In a recent article by Dr. Bernhard Riegel, Director of Research Development at battery systems provider for train operating companies, HOPPECKE Batterien GmbH & Co. KG, he notes that lead batteries are still the most widely used technology in Central Europe for supplying power to the onboard electrical systems of trains.

With a staggering 416 billion passenger-kilometres of rail travel across Europe in 2019, the role of lead batteries is critical for train mobility.

In the article featured on Charge the Future, Dr. Riegel discusses the unique blend of benefits offering by lead batteries for rail applications. At moderate temperatures they combine low maintenance requirements, reliability and low lifecycle costs. In many European trains, lead batteries are used to protect onboard power supply systems. Whether they provide emergency power supply for passenger cars, start the diesel engine for diesel locomotives or are used for direct drive, lead batteries play an essential role for rail.

CBI’s  « rail road »  to keep supporting research and innovation for lead batteries in order to significantly contribute to the EU green goals and future climate objectives of our planet, is linked to the knowledge that lead batteries have a tremendous potential to innovate and be used in many different applications in a highly sustainable, economic and safer way.

Dr. Riegel, also highlighted the growth potential of lead batteries in this and other sectors, from providing uninterrupted power to hospitals and back-up to telecoms and stabilise grids, to backing up renewable energy supplies and supporting hybrid and electric vehicles.

As we celebrate the EU’s mobility week, we recognize the many ways lead batteries are powering low-emission mobility and contribute to Europe’s low carbon future.

Lead batteries at the forefront of EU’s energy transition strategy

Wim De Vos, CEO of Campine, joins CBI's guest blog to share his thoughts about the importance of lead batteries and research to reach the EU's green goals.

We are currently in times where many raw materials are scarce and logistics from other parts of the globe are expensive. The only battery technology material that gives Europe security is lead.

When discussing Europe’s energy transition goals - involving the electrification of vehicles and generating more energy from renewable solar and wind power - we cannot avoid talking about batteries. Demand for all types of batteries during the next decades is growing rapidly as we are using more and more electric devices, including electric vehicles (EVs), and increasing the level of energy storage for utilities and renewable projects.

Europe will need metals to produce all these different batteries, however, many of them are becoming scarce and more expensive to import, with the cost of container shipping from Asia to Europe increasing by 4x compared to 2020.

In the end, we will have to make sure that we have enough materials to fuel both battery production, and our path towards a greener society. So where do lead batteries fit in to providing the solution?

Lead remains the main battery technology for automotive applications, such as start-stop and micro-hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries are the primary batteries for EVs, increasing the demand for the metals needed to produce these, but lead continues to play a critical role as low-voltage EV batteries. When it comes to choosing the best technology to achieve the EU’s decarbonisation goals, there is a clear role for all battery technologies to play their part based on their strengths, such as weight, cost, and the performance of the battery.

Nevertheless, if we focus on sustainability and circular economy goals, lead is the only battery technology that is truly “circular”. A new lead battery in Europe is made using 80% recycled content, with nearly 100% of lead batteries collected and recycled at end-of-life. This circularity is far ahead of other battery technologies.

To really consider sustainability, we need to look at the complete supply chain.

CBI's work is helping the industry to meet the demands of the EU’s green transition.

The importance of research and innovation

To make sure that the clean energy transition is achieved, Europe should use as many lead batteries as possible, and increase investment in research and innovation for this technology.

The lead battery has been the mainstream technology for many years and for the past two decades a lot of things have changed for the industry, especially with the rise of alternative chemistries like lithium.

CBI has been an important driver for industry research and innovation, to continue the development and advancement of lead battery technology to meet the demands of the EU’s green transition and need for batteries, underpinned by a mature and circular industrial base.

Therefore, it’s extremely vital to invest money, time, people and “brains” into the work of CBI to develop advanced lead batteries that can compete in the evolving market, by being cost-effective, more efficient, more sustainable and, especially by contributing to the circular model.

By Wim De Vos,
CEO at Campine

Lead battery research underway in national labs: an innovation wave

Part 2

National labs remain a critical player through which the U.S. lead battery industry is leading the way in battery innovation. Through the first-of-its-kind Lead Battery Research Science Program (LBSRP) at ANL, this program has been a key catalyst for improving understanding of lead battery technology. 

For over five years, a complement of scientists from the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division (CSE), Materials Science Division (MSD) and Advanced Photo Source (APS) have been actively studying lead battery fundamental processes governing DCA, lead sulfate mechanistics, and failure modes under representative duty cycles.

Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory equipment at Argonne
Argonne scientists and researchers use the bright x-ray beams at the laboratory's Advanced Photon Source to investigate the further potential of lead batteries (Photo credit - Argonne National Laboratory)

The research program, which involves 90% of the North American lead battery industry, has capitalized on the scientific excellence of both the industry and the national lab structure, demonstrating a great model of how productive these collaborations can be and the opportunities to engage with government labs to deliver next-generation batteries.

Under the umbrella of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), several different testing and application-specific efforts are underway at different national laboratories. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) there are twin testing efforts underway: one focused on the safety and reliability of batteries in energy storage systems (ESS) applications and another testing innovative new battery type performance. 

In both projects, advanced lead batteries using bipolar configurations, novel electrodes and other innovations are currently being studied. 

In addition, a PNNL team is currently studying a new electrolyte system in conjunction with lead-based electrodes, probing how alternative electrolyte chemistries can maximize the inherent electrochemistry in acidic lead systems.

In Golden, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting novel testing and evaluation for five different lead battery systems in behind-the-meter storage (BTMS) for EV fast-charging.

The spectrum of advanced lead batteries tested in this study are serving as a benchmark group with the ongoing data collection paving the way for demonstrating how these systems would be used in the future.

Specifically geared towards EV fast-charging demand reduction, this unique application is presenting exciting future opportunities for lead batteries to play a pivotal role in the transition to e-mobility.

The role of universities and national labs are critical for the cutting-edge research underway in advanced lead batteries. These partnerships open up future market opportunities for the technology to be a central player in the move to a low carbon future with higher levels of electrification. 

By Dr Matt Raiford

An innovation wave: lead battery research driven by universities and national labs

Part 1

There is an innovation wave underway in lead battery technology. In universities and national laboratories across the U.S., research projects are opening up new pathways for understanding and enhancing the performance of lead batteries.

As the current administration moves steadily towards a low-carbon future, through ambitious programs accelerating new energy storage technology development, and demonstrated through the pledge to cut carbon emissions in half by 2030, lead batteries have a vital role to play.

In a CBI project with UCLAin-situ TEM of lead battery electrodes is depicting expansion and growth processes of the active material via real-time imaging. This kind of scientific insight is shedding new light into failure modes of lead batteries, working towards providing a deeper understanding for how to optimize the battery for grid energy storage and low-emission vehicles. 

UCLA images of Pb dendrite growth and collapse were acquired in real time with a transmission electron microscope. Certain nucleation sites consistently nucleate larger dendrites.

In Minnesota’s University of St. Thomas, pioneering research is underway into microgrids utilizing lead batteries. A critical application in the shift to reliable and renewable energy, microgrids are booming in demand across the U.S. and further afield.

With studies taking place in the dedicated St. Thomas Center for Microgrid Research, the microgrid features a 125 kW/396 kWh lead battery system, a 48 kW solar array and the capability to emulate different electrical sources or loads using state-of-the-art electrical power research equipment. With its connection to the grid, the facility is helping to both develop technology and train new engineers to shape the future of energy.

Battery improvement from a systems level is being studied by the CALCE Battery Team at the University of Maryland, focusing on lead batteries utilizing a complement of modelling techniques and battery management research. The aim is to improve the lifetime of lead batteries and other forms of electrochemical storage, a key technical parameter for utility, renewable energy storage and automotive applications.

A cross-disciplinary team at Columbia University are studying smart charging algorithms and machine learning methodologies in lead battery packs. This kind of research is invaluable, and the improvements are being applied directly through a CBI research collaboration with Electric Applications Incorporated (EAI) using novel charge control methods to maximize lead battery string life.

Over the last three decades, CBI’s research program has focused on many different components in lead battery electrodes, including expanders, which are vital for performance. In the newest project to be launched between U.S.-based research teams and the lead battery industry is a collaborative effort with the University of Toledo and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 

Organized by the American Battery Research Group in an effort geared towards maximizing energy throughput and charge acceptance in lead battery electrodes, it will involve designing, producing and testing new organic expander molecules.

Universities are just one of the scientific sectors to be focusing their research efforts of advancing lead batteries for the evolving technical demand of booming industries such as energy storage and low-emission mobility.

Our next blog in the innovation series will feature the pioneering scientific research underway in collaboration with U.S. national laboratories. 

Read Part 2
By Dr Matt Raiford

The rebirth of the oldest secondary power source: lead-air battery

When the French inventor Gaston Plante discovered in 1869 that two lead plates immersed in sulfuric acid solution can reversibly store electricity, he probably did not imagine that he had given the world one of the most widely used and stable battery systems. 

Today, 160 years later, the lead battery dominates more than 60% of the market for secondary power sources, with a market worth more than $30 billion annually. 

Globally, there is a huge infrastructure and economy that supports the production and development of lead batteries including thousands of jobs and factories around the world.

What are the reasons for the success of the lead battery? First of all, it is safe, the terminal voltage is relatively high and it can deliver high power at discharge high currents. Another advantage is the low cost of production and the low total cost of ownership and operation. Last but not least, the lead battery is the most recycled consumer product globally. More than 97% of the components of the used lead batteries are reused, making this electrochemical system an integral part of the circular economy. 

But innovation is necessary all technologies. And for lead batteries, an area of development is to tackle the low specific energy of the system. 

Our research team at the Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IEES-BAS) is exploring how to improve the energy and environmental performance of lead batteries. By enhancing these aspects, the lead battery will continue to be a core technology for the decarbonization aims of governments across the globe.

Batteries cycling equipment in the IEES-BAS lab

In a recently published paper by our research team at IEES-BAS, we look at the possibility to design a lead-air electrochemical system. The purpose of the study was to prove that the positive electrode in a conventional lead battery can be replaced with a gas diffusion electrode (GDE). 

The main advantages of this approach are that the GDE increases the specific energy of the system by up to 52% while reducing the amount of lead used, thus making the battery lighter and more cost-effective. 

Another advantage which makes the adoption of the new system easier is that the negative electrode is the same as the one used in conventional lead batteries. This means that the main current generation reactions remain the same. 

Research and innovation are integral to the lead battery industry, and our work on this system will continue in order to improve the stability and reversibility of the GDE. We believe that this new reincarnation of the lead battery will open new possibilities for lead batteries to remain an important part of the energy storage landscape as well as to remain a leader in the circular economy.

Making the EU Green Deal a reality: Fit for 55

The much-anticipated “Fit for 55” package released by the European Commission is the latest in a set of ambitious targets designed to ensure Europe achieves carbon-neutrality by 2050.

In a move designed to accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the package aims for a 55% reduction by 2030 through interconnected policies including those targeting energy and transport.

That’s where batteries come in. This is a unique opportunity for batteries to play a significant role in one of the most ambitious decarbonisation frameworks in the world. 

The shift to focusing on more renewable energy generation and the grid resiliency and flexibility required as a result presents a chance for advanced lead batteries to directly support these energy needs.

To tackle climate change, energy storage is needed yesterday, not just by 2030. With existing supply chain and mature manufacturing capability, lead batteries can be deployed in large numbers, fast and sustainably.  

Research underway led by CBI in Europe is already driving innovation in the technology directly focused on this area: plugging-in renewables and facilitating grid storage. With some of the leading universities in Europe and with partnerships in the US, this research will feed in to the next-generation advanced lead batteries needed to support Europe’s climate-neutral future.

CBI's European research projects are supporting the shift to a low-carbon future.

With the ever-increasing move to hybrids and electric vehicles, advanced lead batteries continue to provide an essential on-board element for Europe’s e-mobility fleet. They’re also live and online across Europe providing reliable, sustainable energy for installations spanning community microgridssolar farms for manufacturing plants, and utility grid frequency regulation

A message that needs to resound in Europe is that all batteries will be critical for this shift. With different advantages for different applications, battery technologies are vast and diverse. And advanced lead batteries are one of the critical players offering high-performance, reliability, safety and a sustainability profile including almost 100% recycling at end-of-life in Europe.

Combining these attributes with the dedication to innovation from the European, and indeed the global lead battery industry, is setting this technology apart. 

From enhancing cycle life, an essential parameter for renewable and utility energy storage, to improving dynamic charge acceptance, a vital part of what makes hybrid and electric vehicles cleaner, is where the industry is focusing their efforts for lead battery improvements.

The lead battery will be a significant player in enabling the EU Green Deal by making climate and circularity targets a reality, supported by research, innovation and collaboration across Europe to ensure the future has all the batteries it needs to succeed in the green transition. 

By Dr Carl Telford, Research and Innovation Manager, CBI

Answering the call for next-generation energy storage: Lead Battery Grand Challenge

With the energy storage landscape at a turning point in the U.S., the lead battery industry is stepping up to the challenge to meet the call by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate the development and utilization of next-generation energy storage technologies.

This effort, part of a series of programs focused on energy storage innovation for utility services, is offering a unique opportunity for the lead battery industry to double down on research efforts to continue enhancing technology performance to support domestic energy storage demand.

The industry is already a step ahead with its domestic manufacturing and recycling capability – a $26.3 billion industry with battery end-of-life recycling rates of 99% - but innovation remains a driving force for lead batteries as future energy demand continues to soar.

The effort announced by the DOE represents a renewed focus on energy storage research and development and the Lead Battery Grand Challenge innovation roadmap, developed by CBI and Battery Council International (BCI), is answering the call. 

Offering the opportunity for the lead battery industry to collaborate with the scientific excellence of the DOE, through national labs partnerships and research collaborations, our industry aims to deliver innovative, next-generation lead batteries for key energy storage markets.

From residential and commercial demand reduction to load response for solar generation, the opportunities are vast for lead batteries to provide a unique blend of benefits – safety, recyclability, reliability and sustainability – whilst delving into the untapped potential of the technology through specific research areas.

Increasing total energy throughput related to cycle life is a key area of improvement identified for lead batteries, building on existing efforts underway by CBI to enhance battery performance, such as the existing Argonne National Laboratory project

Alongside other innovative developments such as new battery architectures used in next-generation bipolar lead batteries, the research areas identified in the Lead Battery Grand Challenge are poising the industry for collaborative projects with DOE stakeholders.

As the future of energy calls for high-performing, sustainable technologies, lead batteries are set to play to a critical role in delivering a technology vital to achieving the technoeconomic and decarbonization goals for the U.S. energy grid.

Download the Lead Battery Grand Challenge innovation roadmap

By Dr Matt Raiford

Lead Battery Industry Releases Innovation Roadmap to Strengthen U.S. Energy Sector Infrastructure

Manufacturers and Research Consortium Name 13 Areas to Improve Battery Performance, Deployment and Manufacturing to Meet Demand for Advanced Battery Technology

WASHINGTON – JULY 13, 2021 – As lawmakers work to strengthen infrastructure within the energy sector, batteries have emerged as a critical area that requires additional investment to ensure a reliable source of energy storage to safeguard a secure supply chain to power the electrical grid, as well as essential industries like transportation, telecommunications, data security, aerospace and defense.

The pandemic revealed the nation’s reliance on imports of products and materials used in critical manufacturing sectors to produce energy storage. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) publicly committed to further investment to create and sustain American leadership in energy storage.   

The lead battery industry, with its reliable and proven domestic infrastructure has developed an innovation roadmap to demonstrate its role in helping DOE meet that challenge. Battery Council International (BCI) and the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) jointly produced the report.

“This roadmap identifies key research areas which offer opportunities for the next generation of advanced lead batteries to deliver significant performance gains and to play and even greater role in the diverse energy mix that will power the nation’s grid.  It’s a call to arms for lead battery manufacturers, DOE, and the national laboratories to partner on collaborative research that takes science from the laboratory to the marketplace,” said Roger Miksad, executive vice president of BCI.

The lead battery industry believes that by using the experience of the lead battery industry in combination with the scientific skill and expertise of the DOE’s national lab system can yield significant performance gains that could double, or provide even greater advances to cycle life and energy density. This would further cement lead batteries as the only energy storage solution with intrinsic safety measures, that is highly sustainable, manufactured domestically and meets the technoeconomic needs of the U.S. utility sector for decarbonization and distribution of the U.S. grid.

“DOE’s renewed focus on energy storage R&D represents a unique opportunity for demonstrable gains in the U.S. battery industry. A high-performing and sustainable energy storage solution is key, and this is possible through a collaboration between the U.S. lead battery industry and the scientific excellence of the DOE,” says Dr. Matt Raiford, senior technical manager, CBI, an author of the roadmap.

In February, President Biden issued an Executive Order to ensure resilient and diverse supply chains which put the spotlight on the need for the U.S. to assert global leadership with home-grown technology to assist in the transition to an electric and low carbon future. High capacity batteries will help to enable that process. Advanced lead batteries hold the promise of a truly sustainable, U.S. battery energy storage industry.

The roadmap’s thirteen research work areas identified to aid DOE in meeting the challenge include:

  1. Lead industry support
  2. Lead Battery Science Research Program
  3. Additive modeling
  4. Bipolar innovation
  5. Manufacturing
  6. Technoeconomic analysis
  7. Pilot manufacturing
  8. Supply Chain issues
  9. Logistics
  10. Balance of plant optimization
  11. Energy storage system demonstration
  12. Operational Issues
  13. Recycling

The U.S. lead battery industry has an annual economic impact of $26.3 billion with more than 92,000 direct and indirect jobs across 38 states. Lead batteries are a baseline energy storage technology used in automotive, telecommunications, electric power, mining, agriculture, marine, and data centers. They are the most recycled product in the world, boasting a 99% recycling rate. Lead batteries provide 60% of the global rechargeable energy storage market, and have significant potential for even better performance to serve increasingly demanding requirements for vehicle electrification and the integration of renewable power to the electric grid. 


Battery Council International (BCI) is the North American trade association representing the lead-based battery manufacturing, supply, recycling and distribution companies. For more information on the association, visit

The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is a pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. 

For more than 25 years, with its membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology. Our membership comprises the majority of US-based companies from the entire lead battery value chain. 

Through research partnerships with scientific institutions including Argonne National Laboratory and UCLA, CBI is setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. 

The first choice for power backup: lead batteries

As the most widely used battery technology globally, lead batteries are used extensively in a number of applications, including data centers. CBI has invited FIAMM to join our guest blog to share their insight into the critical role of lead batteries for the growing data center market – with demand for the technology predicted to grow by 5 GWh by 2030 - and their key advantages in terms of safety, reliability, cost and recyclability.

Lead batteries are the most widely used of all the battery chemistry families today. Worldwide there are around $35 billion produced every year. They are used extensively from engine starting in cars and trucks, powering industrial equipment, and for providing critical backup power in many applications – including data centers.

A debate is taking place in the market about the role of the latest battery chemistry, lithium, and how it compares to lead. The argument is valid and one that is important for the customer to understand. Each system has its merits.

At FIAMM, an international producer of batteries for industrial and automotive, and part of the global Japanese Showa Denko Group, we have chosen to maintain our focus on lead.

Like most major international battery producers, we continually research new technologies in our effort to provide value for our customers. We evaluated Lithium as a battery chemistry and concluded that we want to keep lead as our core chemistry. This is why.

A modern lead battery is the culmination of years of experience. In the data center world, FIAMM makes batteries that provide the vital link to protect power continuity. We have supplied thousands of applications, supplying big-name customers across the world.

Every data center power requirement is unique. Our experience indicates that valve regulated, maintenance free lead batteries will continue to be the major choice for years to come.

A modern UPS system in a data center is complex. There are many factors to be considered, such as its location in the world, power quality and the unique nature of the application itself. FIAMM approaches each project as unique. We examine all the factors that the customer requests and advise on best practices, such as layout and how to improve an environment that maximizes the life of the system. There are no standard off-the-shelf solutions.

"Every data center power requirement is unique. Our experience indicates that valve regulated, maintenance free lead batteries will continue to be the major choice for years to come."

Data centers are energy-hungry and, without power, they fail. The quality of their service is critical. A major push in the data center industry, at the moment, is to ensure that data centers use ‘greener’ power. The industry is setting an impressive record and some of the major operators already operate on 100 percent renewable energy.

All FIAMM batteries are recyclable. Lead, which is to say that the core of the battery can be reclaimed, reprocessed, and recycled. This fits well with the growing concern to protect and re-use precious resources. In Europe, in particular, there is a major push towards products that fit a circular economy. Lead batteries meet this requirement well as they can be 99 percent recycled. All lead batteries have a residual end-of-life value…usually between ten and 15 percent of the initial cost.

Lead batteries are also safe and offer good life. Like all products, they must be used within the guidelines provided by producers. FIAMM batteries operate in a temperature range of 25-30 Celsius.

In the end, the deciding factor often comes down to money. The focus is on operating costs and payback. FIAMM batteries fit well on these criteria. Lead batteries cost considerably less than a lithium solution. An equivalent lithium solution can cost 300 percent more than lead. This represents a significant premium. Furthermore, there is still no effective solution for recycling lithium batteries, and disposal can be costly.

Nicola Corradin, Product and Strategic Marketing Manager at FIAMM Energy Technology (Reserve Power Solutions Division)

Article originally posted on Data Center Dynamics.

CBI is speaking at the 7th International Secondary Lead Conference

Visit the conference website for more information on this virtual event.

Unique renewable energy centre powered by dual-chemistry battery storage

Pairing renewable energy with a dual-chemistry battery energy storage system is the latest innovative project underway by GS Yuasa. Based at their Ebbw Vale factory in Wales, the installation featuring nearly 3,000 solar panels and a combined lead and lithium battery system is forming part of Wales' first dual-chemistry energy centre. Part funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the unique integrated energy centre is showcasing the benefits of using complementary battery technologies to drive Europe's green energy ambitions.

The installation of nearly 3,000 solar panels, forming part of Wales’ first dual-chemistry energy centre has been successfully completed at GS Yuasa’s Ebbw Vale factory.

The battery manufacturer announced their partnership with the innovative renewable energy company, Infinite, late last year. Both Infinite and GS Yuasa, along with their partners Albion Capital, are set to launch their first Energy Centre at the Rassau industrial estate in South Wales.

The combination of wind turbines, solar photovoltaics and battery storage will provide reliable, cost efficient and greener power directly to the customer.

Work at the site is moving on apace with the first phase of the unique integrated energy centre – the installation of a 1MWh rooftop solar system at GS Yuasa’s factory, already completed. Approval has also been granted for the building of a wind turbine which will supply electricity directly to the site. The Energy Centre will be linked to an energy storage scheme with its ADEPT battery container bringing together the use of GS Yuasa’s lead acid and lithium batteries, thus offering optimum efficiency and flexibility when managing power across a micro-grid.

The installation of a 1MWh rooftop solar system at GS Yuasa’s factory features nearly 3,000 solar panels, supported by a lead and lithium battery energy storage system.

Andrew Crossman, Director, Infinite says: “The GSCS Energy Centre represents a step-change in the de-centralised distribution of low carbon and renewable energy. The Rassau scheme aims to share the benefits of multi technology generation within the immediate community, providing discounted renewable power and reducing the CO2 emissions in the area.”

Shaun Gardner, Managing Director, GS Yuasa Manufacturing UK Ltd added: “The project brings a number of benefits to our Ebbw Vale factory and the wider Rassau industrial estate. The unique combination of our lithium and lead-acid batteries, the latter of which are produced on site in South Wales, allows for the storage of greener energy, generated by either solar or wind, to be used at a later date.”

The centre is part of the Generation Storage Consumption Supply project (GSCS) and is one of up to seven local energy centre schemes in South and West Wales to be grant funded by The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Match funding of £5.5m has been provided by Infinite’s funding partner, Albion Community Power. The total CAPEX for the schemes is £14.4m with £8.9m provided by the ERDF.

Welsh Government Minister for Climate Change, Julie James said: “Climate Change is at the heart of our decision making and we are committed to accelerating the transition to a low carbon energy system in Wales. The GSCS Energy Centre, alongside the other EU funded local energy schemes, will play an important role in driving action towards our ambition for a more sustainable future for Wales, by providing the benefits of cost-effective, more reliable green energy to local businesses and communities across South and West Wales.”

Marco Yu, Investment Director, Albion Community Power, says: “Albion has over 20 years’ experience funding sustainable energy projects across the UK. We backed the Infinite team in the early stages of its growth and are thrilled to be part of its latest pioneering, multi-technology projects that are leading the way in helping local businesses to decarbonise and reduce energy cost while alleviating the electricity load of the electricity grid network.”

Battery innovation: it’s in the name

Battery innovation is what drives us at CBI. And it’s what unites our members based across the globe. 

The last decade has seen a boom in innovation in advanced lead batteries, using novel design and new architectures to enhance the performance of traditional lead batteries for a range of applications.

Progressing from benchtop prototypes to mature products, these novel advanced lead batteries are poised for the mass market.

The unique electrodes offered by New Zealand’s ArcActive and the different bipolar technologies offered by US-based Advanced Battery Concepts (ABC) and Gridtential are just some of the examples of recent lead battery innovation.

For these developments to be stemming from our member companies is encouraging for CBI and helps us to showcase our core messages about the innovation underway in lead batteries, directly feeding into the needs of society for high-performing, reliable and sustainable lead batteries.

Beginning as a garage start-up, ABC is based in Clare, Michigan and quickly developed into a state-of-the-art manufacturing and development center. ABC's GreenSeal­® bipolar technology, which delivers increased performance, more efficient charging, longer life and reduced weight, is now licensed by seven battery manufacturing companies located across the world in the US, Europe, India and China. 

The technology touts the highest energy density (65 Wh per kg) on the market and GreenSeal® batteries also provide high power and charge acceptance. As ABC’s Chief Operating Officer, Mike Everett, said at the European Lead Battery Conference in 2020, they plan to add a medium volume production line, able to build 250,000 GreenSeal batteries annually to their facility. ABC has also been awarded a contract with the Defense Logistics Agency to develop advanced lead batteries for US military vehicles. 

ABC plans to add a medium volume production line to their facility, able to build 250,000 GreenSeal batteries

Founded in 2007, ArcActive is based in Christchurch, New Zealand and recently won the BCI Innovation Award for their AACarbon™ technology. Their novel carbon felt electrodes have demonstrated unparalleled recharge capability with some of the highest dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) values recorded for any advanced lead battery.  

At the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference in 2020 and during BCI’s 2020 Virtual Convention, ArcActive’s presentations showed DCA values of +1.4 A/Ah at the 12 V level and close to 9 A/Ah at the 48 V level. 

ArcActive’s AACarbon™ Electrodes

DCA is one of the critical work areas for CBI’s research to ensure lead batteries continue to innovate in their area to meet evolving technical demand in the increasingly hybridised automotive market. 

ArcActive’s DCA performance is quickly approaching CBI’s research goal of 2.0 A/Ah and they have developed a suite of manufacturing equipment to translate their electrode technology directly into AGM and EFB products.

Since 2010, Gridtential has made major strides in developing their flagship Silicon Joule® technology. The innovative silicon wafer substrate combined with the bipolar technology has helped to enhance lead batteries across almost every performance metric.

The Silicon Joule technology provides improvements in energy density, power density, recharge efficiency, and cycle life, especially at deep depth of discharge (DOD). 

Gridtential’s Silicon Joule™ technology

The silicon wafer electrodes utilize common semiconductor high-throughput manufacturing processes to generate high quality battery current collectors. Silicon Joule batteries can be manufactured leveraging existing production equipment, so they're ready today to meet the worldwide demand for safe and sustainable energy storage. 

With 12 battery partners, Gridtential have just announced a series of groundbreaking AGM reference batteries produced on East Penn Manufacturing’s prototype line, beginning with a single-block 24V lead battery optimized for deep-cycle applications.

Combined with a CBI research project looking to develop plug-and-play systems for the solar residential market, Gridtential is a leading player for lead battery innovation.

This is just a snapshot of the innovation underway in the global lead battery industry. Combining the expertise of industry partners with universities and research institutes is the basis for CBI’s research program to deliver the next generation of advanced lead batteries. 

Find out how we’re propelling innovation with a range of ground-breaking research projects here.

Power grab: researchers probe grid resilience using advanced batteries


A new university research partnership will show how advanced lead batteries can support electricity grid energy storage and plug-in to more renewable and other storage requirements for low carbon energy systems. 

The project is being led by the University of Warwick and Loughborough University, supported by the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI). 

Demand for batteries as a storage technology is steadily growing across the globe in order to support greater levels of grid flexibility, reliability and decarbonization as more renewables are integrated into the grid and in the face of extreme weather events.

By developing more advanced levels of modelling and prediction of lead battery behaviour for utility grid storage, the research is geared towards facilitating higher uptake of lead batteries to support the energy grid.

Isolated multichannel battery and cell voltage measuring circuit for use in series strings.

Europe’s energy storage transition over the last few years has witnessed tremendous growth, increasing from 0.55 GWh 2016 to 5.26 GWh by the end of 2020, with front-of-the-meter deployments such as utilities leading the way, representing more than 50% of installed capacity.

These energy storage systems require high-performing, reliable and affordable batteries to ensure the smooth generation and storage of energy for regional and national electrical grids.

Prof Richard McMahon from the University of Warwick said: “We are really pleased to be working with the CBI on the use of lead batteries in energy storage applications. Lead batteries have key benefits of safety and recyclability but there is work to be done to understand how best to manage lead batteries in energy storage service to optimize efficiency and prolong life.”

He added: “This knowledge will show owners and operators of storage facilities that lead-based systems provide a safe and cost-effective solution.”

By combining innovative research techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, researchers will study and predict the performance and lifetime of lead batteries in various utility duty cycles.

"The availability of low-cost powerful microprocessors is fuelling an explosion in our capability to monitor, understand and impact battery degradation in real world situations at low cost,” said Prof Dani Strickland from Loughborough University.

“This project is exciting because it will use expertise in the partner organisations to transition lead batteries to the world of big data and smart energy storage," she continued.

The model developed by researchers will be compared to data gathered from actual lead batteries in the field, significantly aiding the understanding of how the technology is used in utility grid applications and how these factors impact battery lifetime. 

2 V batteries undergoing partial state of charge cycling to detect capacity loss and changes in charge acceptance

The research will be a critical part of the Consortium’s drive to achieve the technical performance goals for lead batteries set out in its technical roadmap by generating insights into how to control to maximize battery life in real-world energy storage installations.

CBI’s Technical Manager, Dr Matt Raiford, said: “This kind of collaborative research with universities is exactly what the lead battery industry needs. Working with leading institutions to deliver new insights and modelling techniques for lead battery energy storage is critical for the wider industry to continue their foray into the utility grid storage market.”


Notes to editors:

  1. The Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) is the world’s only global pre-competitive research organization funding research into lead batteries for energy storage, motive and automotive applications. For more than 25 years, with its global membership of battery manufacturers, industry suppliers, research institutes and universities, CBI has delivered cutting-edge research pushing the boundaries of innovation in lead battery technology, setting the standard for advanced lead batteries and the next generation of energy storage. For more information, visit our website:
  2. Across Europe, lead batteries are being used for grid-scale energy storage to provide frequency regulation services which are critical for grid flexibility and reliability. View examples on our Interactive Map
  3. Dr Matt Raiford, Technical Manager of CBI, is available for interview. For more information, please contact CBI’s media contact: Niamh Owen-McLaughlin, +44 7593 445 096;

View the project video:

Charged up: battery innovation for a greener Europe

Each year that EU Green Week is celebrated, Europe gets closer to its ambitious goal of being the first climate-neutral continent.

As a key action of the EU Green Deal, this strive towards climate neutrality by 2050 will be underpinned by many technologies and the transition of industries to low carbon practices.

And this is where advanced lead batteries come in. As a battery technology engaged in delivering clean energy projects and enabling the electric vehicle revolution, Europe’s lead battery value chain is also supported by an industry which is a model for the circular economy.

This combination of sustainability principles, where the industry recycles almost 100% of its batteries in Europe to produce new batteries with 80% recycled material, sets advanced lead batteries apart.

As we enter EU Green Week, we hear from Exide in Portugal who have slashed their carbon emissions at their manufacturing and recycling plants by an average of 20% through the innovative use of solar energy and advanced lead batteries.

The photovoltaic plant at Exide's Castanheira facility is paired with advanced lead battery energy storage.

We’ll be taking a look at the range of European energy storage projects, from small-scale community microgrids bringing 24-hour power for the first time, to large-scale frequency regulation installations delivering reliable and flexible power to regional electricity grids. All powered by advanced lead batteries.

The clean energy initiatives ushered in by the EU Green Deal will need all energy storage technologies to step up to the plate. Batteries will be a central part of Europe’s transition to a low-carbon future as more and more societies, industries and consumers turn to batteries for affordable, clean and renewable energy.

And the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI) has recognised this need and the continued demand for innovation in batteries to meet the evolving technical requirements of storage systems, and to explore the potential for other applications.

That’s why a large portion of our technical program is dedicated to energy storage. With European projects bringing together universities and battery manufacturers to tackle the highest priority developments for the technology, CBI is driving innovation in lead batteries to ensure performance enhancements are continually increasing. All whilst maintaining the circular economy successes of the technology.

The other central pillar upon which the EU is aiming for a climate-neutral 2050 is low-emission mobility. The role of the established lead battery which ushered in emission-reducing start-stop vehicles continues to be important for the increasing electrification of vehicles. As a critical on-board component of virtually all EVs, powering essential safety features, lead batteries are enabling the shift to an e-mobility future. 

This EU Green Week, find out more about the interesting and innovative ways advanced lead batteries are powering the transition to a greener future for Europe.

Exide Europe – Storage-backed battery production Portugal

Battery Production Powered By Lead Batteries

Download the full case study

View CBI's interactive map of energy storage projects


In two state-of-the-art solar installations, Exide Group is powering its battery production and recycling facilities using advanced lead battery energy storage.

With a combined capacity of 4.5 MWp between the two installations, located in Castanheira do Ribatejo and Azambuja in Portugal, Exide has reduced carbon emissions by an average of 20% across both sites.

Exide partnered with energy provider EDP for design, delivery and the incorporation of the energy storage component for the projects.

“More companies will rely on storage-backed self-generated power in the years ahead, and we are excited to be at the forefront of this trend. Our Sonnenschein A600 gel battery technology is extremely capable in this application.” 

Stefan Stübing, CEO and President of Exide Technologies
The photovoltaic plant at Exide's Castanheira facility is paired with advanced lead battery energy storage.

Technical Specification

By pairing the solar installations with advanced lead battery storage, this project is providing an exciting option for energy-intensive manufacturing facilities to reduce both carbon emissions and energy costs.

Using their own batteries for storage, Exide is utilizing solar energy to provide cost-effective and renewable energy by storing the energy generated during the day.

The system is one of the largest self-generation installations backed by energy storage in Europe, featuring: 

Producing enough energy to supply over 1,500 homes, the system showcases the benefits of using advanced lead batteries for large-scale energy storage projects.

Manufactured in Exide’s European production facilities, the Sonnenschein A600 gel lead battery range has been utilized for decades to support complex, large-scale network power applications.

290 Sonnenschein A600 Gel lead batteries are used for the energy storage system at Exide's Castanheira facility

With proven reliability, maintenance-free and first-class safety features, the battery offers long service life and protection against deep discharge. Fully recyclable at end-of-life, the batteries provide added sustainability for renewable energy storage applications.

As part of a ‘Green Social Building’, the battery system is operating as an island for the factory workers, where the solar panels provide energy during the day and the batteries provide power at night.

Technical Summary: PV Park

Overall capacity4.5 MWp
Total panels installed11,250
Total inverters70
Battery specification290 cells Sonnenschein A600 Gel
Available stored energy500 kWh
Carbon emissions reducedCastanheira facility: 23%Azambuja facility: 19%

About the Company 

Exide Technologies, headquartered near Paris, France, is a leading provider of advanced energy storage solutions for the automotive and industrial markets.

It designs, manufactures and markets today´s and next-generation battery technologies used across a wide range of applications, from automotive and off-road to material handling, stationary, rail and defense. 

CBI is presenting at Batteries Event 2021

CBI will be co-hosting and presenting a lead battery session at Batteries Event.

Batteries Event was one of the only battery on-site events in the world in 2020. Batteries Event 2021 will again likely be one of the only opportunities to meet all then Battery industry Players: raw material suppliers, Car manufacturers and cell manufacturers: PANASONIC, CATL, ACC, VERKOR, ENVISION AESC, FARASIS, S-VOLT, FREYR, Groupe RENAULT, STELLANTIS, … as well as the historical players will be in Lyon to explain their strategy and detail their Roadmap.

The Batteries Event will cover all aspects of the circular economy value chain, starting from the production of the battery through raw materials, cell manufacturing, use and safety, management and applications, going through market trends, research and development, new technologies and finally closing the loop with a focus on recycling, second life and regulations.

International battery industry key players such as OEM, cell and pack manufacturers, end users, experts, researchers and recyclers will come together to discuss and exchange on new chemistries, manufacturing processes, battery components, battery second life, recycling, regulation, future expectations and innovations.

The ambition is once again to be a must-attend event for those who want to meet with high level representatives and have a clear vision of the profound transformations to come, made possible by the massive growth of the battery industry in Europe.

What is Batteries Event 2021’s ambition?

3 days to inspire, learn, understand, inform and share. Our objective is to bring together at least 300 people from across the industry (researchers, raw material suppliers, components, manufacturers, consultants, intellectuals …). We plan +90 selected speakers, thematic conferences and workshops, 25 to 30 exhibitors, quality networking moments and friendliness!

CBI members enjoy a 15% discount on Attendees / exhibition and Sponsoring packages, excluding speaker packages.

How lead batteries make EVs safer

Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios, sets out how lead batteries supporting safety systems in electric vehicles are integral to low-carbon mobility.

Europe is at a critical crossroads in its ambitious goals of achieving a climate-neutral EU by 2050. With initiatives driven through the EU Green Deal to decarbonize Europe, one of the central ways in which this will be achieved is through low-emission mobility.

Electric vehicles are at the forefront of discussions around Europe’s low-emission vehicle fleet and the future of the automotive industry. 

Batteries are critical for electric vehicles, but not just the ones you hear most often about: lithium-ion batteries. The other critical on-board component for electric vehicles, and indeed the range of lower emission vehicles such hybrid vehicles, are 12V lead auxiliary batteries.

These auxiliary batteries play an essential function for hybrid and electric vehicles and lead batteries offer a number of key strengths in this application in comparison to other technologies.

The 12V auxiliary lead battery provides back up power for safety relevant features such as power steering and brake boosting. But they’re also essential for a vehicle’s comfort features such as radio and sound systems.

In the event of the failure of the high-voltage propulsion lithium-ion battery, the auxiliary lead battery takes over and powers the safety features of the vehicle to enable the car to safety pull over.

As a technology, lead batteries are highly safe and reliable, and it is vital that the safest technology is used in this application. 

Current European investments in batteries has focused on the development of new battery technologies that can provide increasing system voltage levels of up to 800V. But this ignores the established 12V lead battery which is backed by an industry with 90 GWh installed production capacity located in Europe.

This mature industry, which collects lead batteries at end-of-life at rates of almost 100% in Europe, is one of the leading examples of circular economy in Europe

From a production and supply standpoint, lead batteries are domestically produced in Europe for all of the target markets. This independence from global supply structures exists due to the established and well-maintained recycling industry, where almost 80% of material in a new lead battery comes from recycling. 

With recent lifecycle analysis of the environmental impact of a vehicle over its lifetime, lead batteries as a technology were shown to have a lower impact compared to other technologies.

Backed by a strong reliability and affordability profile, lead batteries also have wide operational temperature windows compared to li-ion batteries, which intrinsically enhances the operational robustness of the entire system. 

The safety record of lead batteries sets it apart from other chemistries and makes it an invaluable technology for Europe’s future low-emission mobility sector. 

Through a long history of co-operation with the automotive industry, both the performance and the geometrical dimensions of the 12V lead battery are designed according to well established industry standards. This makes the automotive integration easy for the layout of new xEV platforms. 

We are in the age of the battery, and recognition should be given to the essential role different chemistries will play for Europe’s green ambitions. Recognizing and utilizing the strengths of 12V lead batteries, based on their performance, sustainability and safety profiles, will ensure Europe is a leader in the shift to an electric vehicle future.   

By Dr Christian Rosenkranz, Chair of CBI and Vice President Industry and Governmental Relations EMEA at Clarios

CBI General Assembly, Technical and Comms meeting

Held at the 2021 BCI Convention - San Diego, CA, US

CBI North America Technical Workshop

Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.